Authors:I. J. Agudelo, H. Bach, R. A. Ricco, and M. L. Wagner
Chañar (Geoffroea decorticans- Fabaceae) is a tree from South America that is normally infected with galls originated by insects. One of its parasites is Allodiplosis crassa (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) which produces globular galls with sticky prolongations. Since this plant has medicinal uses in Argentina, its infestation could alter the quality of the plant drug. The surface of insect-induced galls usually contains defensive features such as trichomes, increased hardness and an increase in the content of polyphenolic compounds. The objective of this research is to assess the structural and histochemical features of the gall and to compare the content of polyphenolic metabolites in the gall, in the healthy leaf and in lignified stems of G. decorticans. The methanolic extract from the galls showed the highest amount of polyphenolic and proanthocyanidins and the lowest amount of hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids compared to the methanolic extract of the leaves. The photographs taken from the external surface of the gall showed that some prolongations have heads. The histochemical analysis showed that the prolongations have a high amount of proanthocyanidins and flavonoids; and that the heads are reactive to Sudan III. These phytochemical and histological characteristics may have a defensive role against harmful fungi and parasites that attack the larvae of the A. crassa. The results of this study show the presence of defensive features in an insect-induced gall of a medicinal plant with potential implications in the pharmacological activity of this species. This is the first report of a histochemical and phytochemical study in G. corticans galls.
Authors:Maria Weber, Sz. Stiller, K. Balogh, L. Wágner, Márta Erdélyi, and M. Mézes
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of experimental T-2 toxin load (2.35 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin E supply in the drinking water (10.5 mg/bird/day) on vitamin E levels of the blood plasma and liver in broiler chickens in a 14-day experiment. It was found that T-2 toxin load did not influence vitamin E content of the blood plasma except at day 3 after the toxin load when a moderate increase was detected in plasma vitamin E. No significant changes were found in vitamin E content of the liver. The simultaneous use of high-dose vitamin E supplementation and T-2 toxin load caused a significantly higher plasma vitamin E content but the changes were less expressed in the group subjected to T-2 toxin load. Vitamin E supply also resulted in a marked and significant increase in vitamin E concentrations of the liver on days 3 and 7 even in the T-2 loaded group, but this concentration significantly decreased thereafter. The results show that T-2 contamination of the diet has an adverse effect on the utilisation of vitamin E in broiler chickens.
Authors:M. Krivopustov, A. Pavliouk, A. Kovalenko, I. Mariin, A. Elishev, J. Adam, A. Kovalik, Yu. Batusov, V. Kalinnikov, V. Brudanin, P. Chaloun, V. Tsoupko-Sitnikov, A. Solnyshkin, V. Stegailov, Sh. Gerbish, O. Svoboda, Z. Dubnicka, M. Kala, M. Kloc, A. Krasa, A. Kugler, M. Majerle, V. Wagner, R. Brandt, W. Westmeier, H. Robotham, K. Siemon, M. Bielewicz, S. Kilim, M. Szuta, E. Strugalska-Gola, A. Wojeciechowski, S. Hashemi-Nezhad, M. Manolopoulou, M. Fragopolou, S. Stoulos, M. Zamani-Valasiadou, S. Jokic, K. Katovsky, O. Schastny, I. Zhuk, A. Potapenko, A. Safronova, Zh. Lukashevich, V. Voronko, V. Sotnikov, V. Sidorenko, W. Ensinger, H. Severin, S. Batsev, L. Kostov, Kh. Protokhristov, Ch. Stoyanov, O. Yordanov, P. Zhivkov, A. Kumar, M. Sharma, A. Khilmanovich, B. Marcinkevich, S. Korneev, Ts. Damdinsuren, Ts. Togoo, and H. Kumawat
An extended U/Pb-assembly was irradiated with an extracted beam of 2.52 GeV deuterons from the Nuclotron accelerator of the
Laboratory of High Energies within the JINR in Dubna, Russia. The lay-out of this experiment and first results are reported.
The Pb-target (diameter 8.4 cm, length 45.6 cm) is surrounded by a natU-blanket (206.4 kg) and used for transmutation studies of hermetically sealed radioactive samples of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu and 239Pu. Estimates of transmutation rates were obtained as result of measurements of gamma-activities of the samples. Information
about the spatial and energy distribution of neutrons in the volume of the lead target and the uranium blanket was obtained
with sets of activation threshold detectors (Al, Y and Au) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). An electronic
3He neutron detector was tested on-line. A comparison of experimental data with theoretical model calculations using the MCNPX
program was performed yielding satisfactory results.