A series of in-door experiments was performed to get some insight into the corrosion behavior of a commercial alloy Fe-12% Cr (3CR12) exposed to imitated seawater. Applying different analytical methods, the main corrosion process was found to be the formation of flakes on the surface which, peel off after they have reached a certain size. Some Cr is dissolved in the solution, its relative concentration with respect to Fe is higher than in the bulk material. The flakes consist mainly of mixed oxihydroxides of the type FeOOH containing some Cr and Mg. The oxidic layer on the interface is very thin, behaves essentially stationary with a slight growth of about 0.05 nm/day. It consists of Cr oxide with some inclusions of Fe and Mg and is not of a chromite type. Immediately below this oxidic layer, the metallic substrate exhibits a thin layer depleted in Cr and behaving like a-Fe (bcc). As compared with stainless steel, potentiostatic current vs. time records at anodic potentials below the pitting potential indicate a very different stability of the surface films for 3CR12. The kinetics of the passive layer formation on 3CR12 was found to follow a parabolic law initially and to change later (after 10...100 seconds in deaerated solution and even earlier in aerated solution) to a linear law. After some time, pitting corrosion and/or cracks due to internal stresses play the dominant role. Cr does not form a protective oxidic layer. The surface morphology of samples exposed at -200 mV for 20 and 80 minutes has been studied by scanning electron microscopy and scanning Auger microprobe. The results reflect the competing formation of oxidic layers and pitting, the participation of Cr in the dissolution process. They also suggest that Mg, which is a component of the solution was incorporated into the rust and some Mg was also found on the metallic surface.
A direct curve simulation treatment has been worked out for the evaluation of the kinetic curves of heterogeneous isotope exchange. Based on the data obtained by a personal computer some considerations have been made on the transport processes in the fully and half exchanged sodium forms of crystalline zirconium phosphate.
Our research target was to utilise vine-branch, existing in huge amounts, for energetic purposes. During our experiments, microwave (MW) treatments of different powers (400–1600 W), pressures (1–5 bar), temperatures (120–180 °C), and treatment times (3–30 min) were applied to change the physical condition of vine-branch. After MW, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used (85–100 h, 37 °C). In addition, beside MW, comparisons were made regarding various treatment methods: untreated (UTE), cooking plate (CP), and autoclave (AC), to determine to what extent they affect the final glucose yield. This yield can even further be increased by MW pre-treatment (50 W, 3–30 min, 40 °C) of the enzyme used during the hydrolysis, which reinforces the argument that enzyme activity can be increased by irradiation. A difference of 22.1% was detected among the glucose yield values in untreated and treated enzyme processes.
Authors:W. Meisel, CS. Vértes, and M. Lakatos-Varsányi
Integral electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (ICEMS) and additionally some electrochemical methods were used to characterize the passivation process of iron (low carbon steel) in sulfate, sulfate+sulfite (a possible model solution of acid rain) solutions and in phospate buffer. The phase compositions and thicknesses of the passive layers formed due to the electrochemical polarizations were analyzed in dependence on the duration of the anodic passivations and on the pH of the used electrolytes. The passive layer, as determined from the Mössbauer spectra, consists mainly of -FeOOH, however in sulfite containing sulfate aqueous solution at pH 3.5 Fe3C and despite ex-situ circumstances FeSO4·H2O was detected after the shortest polarization time. The film thickness, which was found to grow nearly linearly with polarization time in pure sulfate solution and in phospate buffer, reached a maximum of 60–160 nm (depending on pH) in sulfate+sulfite solution after a passivation time of about 4 hours. It has been proved, that HSO3–-ion, which is contained by acid rain, initiate pit formation under acid conditions and so enforces the corrosion of iron. The experimental results furthermore suggest, that not the whole oxidic layer is responsible for the passivity but only a very thin intermediate layer formed between an inner oxide layer of a cubic structure and the rhombic oxide (-FeOOH) cover.
In different Comfort Standards, for different building functions the requirements for summer and also for winter period differ. The operative temperature is one of these parameters, which in different Comfort Standards for summer-winter period specifies the building's comfort category.
This paper presents the results of measurement of the operative temperature in PASSOL laboratory with different heat storage and using night ventilation.
Authors:V. Kapcsándi, A.J. Kovács, M. Neményi, and E. Lakatos
The aim of our experiments was to demonstrate the non-thermal effect of microwave treatment on Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation activity. A method was developed for studying the effects of various treatments in the course of must fermentation. The raw material (must) was treated in different ways: (i) heat transfer; (ii) microwave treatment; (iii) inoculation with yeast, and (iv) their combinations. The results of the treatments were compared with respect to alcohol concentration, sugar content, and acidity. The results proved that sugar content of the treated samples rapidly decreased compared to the control sample, and fermentation time was 40% shorter in the fastest case. These results can be explained by the yeast inoculation and microwave treatment. Due to non-thermal effects, fermentation capacity increased by about 30%, while the energy consumption decreased.
Authors:P. Olejníková, A. Kaszonyi, M. Šimkovič, B. Lakatoš, M. Kaliňák, M. Valachovičová, and L. Birošová
The human endogenous intestinal microbiota is an essential “organ” in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity. Even though lots of scientists have evaluated the content of gut microbiota from various points of view, we examined the content of intestinal microbes in the group of healthy middle aged volunteers (40–60) form Slovakia. We have compared faecal cultivable microbiota of vegetarians and omnivores. We have found that the composition of the human microbiota is fairly stable, and it seems that the major microbial groups on species level that dominate the human intestine are conserved in all individuals regardless of dietary habits. Beside the microbial content we have examined the faecal samples also for the presence of antimicrobial active compounds, potential mutagens, and faecal sterols.
Authors:Judit Farkas, M. C. Horzinek, H. F. Egberink, H. Vennema, Mária Benkő, and B. Lakatos
Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pharyngeal and rectal swab samples of a cat seropositive for adenovirus and suffering from transient hepatic failure. The samples were taken at a one-year interval, and both faecal samples as well as the second pharyngeal sample were positive in PCR performed with general adenovirus primers. The size of the amplified products corresponded to that of the positive control. The identity of the amplicons was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The 301 bp long hexon gene fragment was very similar to but distinguishable from the corresponding hexon sequence of human adenovirus type 2. This result suggests the possibility of persistent carrier status and shedding of adenovirus in cats.
Authors:Cs. Vértes, G. Vass, E. Kuzmann, K. Romhányi, M. Lakatos-Varsányi, and A. Vértes
Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and XPS has been used for the surface analysis of an X10CrNiTi 18/9 (DIN 1.7440)-type stainless steel in order to determine the supposed structural and/or chemical changes in the surface layer caused by polishing. Both, CEMS and XPS results can be associated with the appearance of Fe nitride in the outer layer of steel samples after polishing, while no sign of nitrogen was detected in the bulk material.