This paper identifies the main references, authors and journals influencing the sustainable development literature. The task is accomplished by means of a citation analysis based on the records of ISI Web of Science. We found that the core of sustainability thinking is framed by a pattern of landmark studies published around every 5 years. Only 380 publications have been cited at least ten times. References with the highest influence are those with a global dimension and large diffusion, such as Brundtland Commission's “Our common future” (1987) and classics such as Meadows’ et al. “Limits to growth” (1972). The list of the most influential references over the period 1960–2005 is dominated by contributions from economics (particularly ecological economics) and environmental science, but includes many other disciplines such as urban planning, political sciences and sociology. References are also made to policy documents such as “Agenda 21”, one of the main outcomes of the Rio Summit in 1992. In analyzing citation trends, we found that classics, because of their high rates of citations per year, seem to have a more enduring and stable influence.
Thoron (220Rn) is a gaseous decay product of232Th decay chain which becomes a potential source of internal contamination for individuals who handle significant amounts of ores and raw materials containing thorium. With the objective of establishing an occupational control of such workers, a methodology which permits, by means of in-vivo measuremens, the determination of the level of internally deposited220Rn daughters (212Pb,212Bi, and208TI), was developed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry/Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (IRD/CNEN) whole body counter. Previous calibration of an 8×4 NaI(Tl) detector was carried out using the lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thorax phantom with the lung cavity filled withi plastic bags containing28Th standard solution. After sealing, the bags are stored until radioactive equilibrium is reached. Patients are measured for I h in two steps, at an interval of approximately 20 h, Positioning the detector over the thorax. A comparison of the activities determined at each measurement allows the distrimination of the contribution of the internally deposited shoret-and longlived radionuclides. This technique was recently applied to a group of workers at a gas mantle industry in Rio de Janeiro. Results of these measurements will be shown.
Authors:M. Lourenço, B. Dantas, E. Lucena, and C. Oliveira
The construction of reliable bone phantoms to calibrate whole body counting facilities for bone-seeking radionuclides has been a challenge for several research institutes. Different techniques have been applied to get uniform distribution of those nuclides in bone tissue. A241Am skull phantom was developed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry/Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission's (IRD/CNEN) Whole Body Counting facility, using a dipping procedure. Preliminary tests were performed using non-radioactive ink solution. The first step was to choose the appropriate solvent to be used, since it was observed that acid solutions attack bone tissue. At the second step, pieces of skull were dipped into those solutions to check the extent and homogeneity of the penetration. The third step consisted of verifying the dipping time using a241Am standard solution. The homogeneity was checked with a high-purity germanium detector. Tissue-equivalent material was used to cover the skull surface and to simulate the low energy X and gamma radiation attenuation. The calibration factor and the detection limit were calculated for two phoswich detectors positioned at each side of the head, which is the standard geometry for this kind of measurement.
Authors:M. Evora, L. Machado, V. Lourenço, O. Gonçalez, H. Wiebeck, and L. de Andrade e Silva
The aim of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effects on thermal properties of there cycled polyamide-6. This polymer
was irradiated with an electron beam of 1.5 MeV with different doses. The thermal properties of the samples were determined
by TG, DSC and DMA measurements. It was observed that the irradiated samples of recycled polyamide-6undergo a crosslinking
Authors:M. Bernardi, E. Antonelli, A. Lourenço, C. Feitosa, L. Maia, and A. Hernandes
The results reported here based on a study
(x=0, 0.2 and 1) nanometric powders prepared
by the modified Pechini method. The powder samples annealed from 600 to 1000C/2
h were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) techniques. The decomposition reactions of resins were studied using
thermal analysis measurements. The barium titanate zirconate system presented
just one orthorhombic phase. Furthermore, this study produced BaTiO3
powders with a tetragonal structure using shorter heat treatments and less
expensive precursor materials than those required by the traditional methods.
Authors:S. Baptista, N. Piloto, F. Reis, E. Teixeira-de-Lemos, A.P. Garrido, A. Dias, M. Lourenço, A. Palmeiro, C. Ferrer-Antunes, and F. Teixeira
Physical exercise may improve the metabolic and haemodynamic responses, but the beneficial effects seem to depend on intensity, duration and muscular mass recruitment, which may vary between different types of protocols. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of two distinct moderate/long-term aerobic training protocols in the normal Wistar rat, the treadmill running and the swimming, on several important parameters related to cardiovascular (CV) physiological adaptations, namely: lipid profile, haemorheological measures, lipid peroxidation, peripheral serotonergic system (SS) modulation and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation.In both groups under training an HDL-c increment versus the sedentary control was demonstrated. There was a noticeable increase in ADP-induced platelet aggregation in the exercised rats, together with higher PDW and MPV values. The RBC patterns were altered in both groups under training; in the swimming one, however, significantly higher RBC and HCT and lower MCH and MCHC values were found, suggesting renovation of the RBCs. Plasma and platelet SS measures were generally higher in both groups under training, being noticeably relevant the 5-HT and 5-HIAA increment in the treadmill. In opposition, concerning the plasma and platelet NE and E concentrations, the rise was remarkably higher in the rats under a swimming protocol.In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, despite the similar beneficial effects on lipid profile, different aerobic exercise protocols may produce distinct CV physiological adaptations. Therefore, treadmill running was more influent than swimming concerning peripheral SS modulation while swimming was more important on SNS activation, thus recommending a judicious choice of the protocol to be tested in works which make use of rat models of exercise to study physiological or pathophysiological conditions.
Authors:Ingrid C. R. Costa, Ivaldo Itabaiana Jr., Marcella C. Flores, Ana Clara Lourenço, Selma G. F. Leite, Leandro S. de M. e Miranda, Ivana C. R. Leal, and Rodrigo O. M. A. de Souza
The use of glycerol derived from biodiesel industry is an important development to add value to this actual waste. Several products can be obtained from glycerol, but acetins are very interesting molecules with a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food, and fuel industry. Herein we report our results on biocatalyzed batch and continuous-flow process for valorization of glycerol derived from biodiesel industry towards acetin production. Excellent results can be obtained with different selectivities depending on the nature of glycerol used and reaction conditions being able to produce monoacetin, diacetin, or triacetin depending on the reaction condition.