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  • Author or Editor: M. M. M. Soliman x
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Artemisia herba-alba (Asso) and Artemisia monosperma (Delile) essential oils were tested against three sucking insect pests under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. These pests included Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Aphis gossypii (Glover) and Thrips tabaci (Lindman). Laboratory results showed that the LC50 of A. herba-alba and A. monosperma were 0.042, 0.075% for eggs and 0.074, 0.186% for immature stages of B. tabaci. Also, both oils gave a high toxicity on A. gossypii with LC50 0.023 and 0.085%. Artemisia herba-alba and A. monosperma were more toxic on T. tabaci and A. gossypii than B. tabaci in the laboratory test. In contrast T. tabaci was sensitive for both oils (LC50 0.038 and 0.011%). These oils were efficient for controlling tested insects on cucumber plants at greenhouses. This treatment caused 85.97, 82.17% reduction in the population of B. tabaci, 90.44, 87.99% for Aphis gossypii and 87.26, 84.99% for T. tabaci. Chemical analysis of A. herba-alba and A. monosperma oils detected the presence of hydrocarbon terpenes, oxygenated terpenes, hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes represented about 16.38%, 58.91%, 21.61%, 2.74% and 21.53%, 57.17%, 19.32%, 1.70%, of the oil content, respectively.

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Abstract  

A pulse method was used to measure the thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity C p and thermal diffusivityξ of polycrystalline ZnIn2Se4 in the temperature range 300–600 K. The temperature dependence of λ, C p and ξ demonstrated a light decrease for this material in the temperature range 300–600 K, indicating that there is not a significant change in the structure in this temperature range; this was confirmed by DTA measurements. The results showed that the mechanism of heat transfer is due mainly to phonons; the contributions of electrons and dipoles are very small.

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Metal complexes of fenoterol drug

Preparation, spectroscopic, thermal, and biological activity characterization

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. Soliman
,
Gehad Mohamed
, and
Eman Mohamed

Abstract

Metal complexes of fenoterol (FEN) drug are prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic moment, molar conductance, and thermal analyses (TG and DTA) techniques. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are formed in 1:2 [Metal]:[FEN] ratio and they are proposed to have the general formula [Cu(FEN)2]·2H2O; [M(FEN)2(H2O)2yH2O (where M = Mn(II) (y = 2), Co(II) (y = 4), Ni(II) (y = 4), and Zn(II) (y = 0) and [Cr(FEN)2(H2O)2]Cl·H2O. The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes except Cr(III) complex, having 1:1 electrolyte. IR spectra show that FEN is coordinated to the metal ions in a uninegative bidentate manner with ON donor sites of the aliphatic –OH and secondary amine –NH. From the magnetic moment measurements, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral (Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)) and square planar (Cu(II)). The thermal behavior of these chelates is studied using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG and DTA) techniques. The results obtained show that the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration followed immediately by decomposition of the coordinated water and ligand molecules in the successive unseparate steps. The FEN drug, in comparison to its metal complexes is also screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi), Yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cervisiae), and Fungi (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). The activity data show that the metal complexes have antibacterial activity like that of the parent FEN drug against one or more species.

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Crude extracts of wild plant species were investigated for their activity against cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov. Extracts were obtained by extracting fresh plants successively with solvents of variable polarities, hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol.  Among of 125 solvent extracts, hexane, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate extracts of Hyoscyamus muticus, acetone extract of Verbascum sinuatum and ethanol extract of Rumex dentatus gave high toxicity against A. gossypii. Their LC50 values were 0.727, 0.883, 1.013, 0.805 and 1.143 mg/cm2, respectively.  Results indicated that 19 plant hexane extracts induced high toxic effect (LC50 ranged between 0.727 and 7.481 mg/cm2) against A. gossypii. Also, 22 plant diethyl ether extracts showed high toxic effect towards the tested insect (LC50's ranged from 0.883 to 10.00 mg/cm2). On basis of the LC50 value, 21 plant ethyl acetate extracts exhibited potent activity to A. gossypii (LC50 values ranged between 1.013 and 10.857 mg/cm2). Twenty-two acetone extracts that revealed high toxic effect (LC50 values ranged from 0.805 to 9.377 mg/cm2) to the tested pest, also 24 tested plant ethanol extracts that exhibited potent activity to A. gossypii (LC50 values ranged between 1.143 and 8.727 mg/cm2).  The ethanol plant extracts proved superior efficiency against A. gossypii followed by acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate and finally diethyl ether plant extracts.

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Two novel, sensitive, and selective stability-indicating chromatographic methods were described for the analysis of zopiclone (ZOP) in the presence of its degradation products, namely, 7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (hydrolytic DEG) and 5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,7(6H)-dione (oxidative DEG), in drug substance and product. The first method was an isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using Inertsil ODS3 (250 × 4 mm, 5 μm) column. Upon using HPLC, the run time could be reduced, and actually, the solvents consumption decreased. Quantification was achieved by detection wavelength at 237 nm, based on peak area. Chromatographic separation was performed over the range of 1–10 μg mL−1 with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.18 and 0.55 μg mL−1 and a mean recovery of 99.98 ± 0.55. The analysis was achieved at 30°C using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (50:50 v/v) as the mobile phase. The second method was thin-layer chromatography (TLC) applied for the separation and analysis of zopiclone in the presence of its alkaline, acidic, and oxidative degradation products. Chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 F254 plates with ethyl acetate‒methanol‒ammonia 33% (17:2:1 v/v) as the mobile phase. Successful resolution was observed with significant difference in the R F values, followed by densitometric measurement at 303 nm. Evaluation was carried out over the range of 0.1–2 μg per spot with a mean recovery of 100.52% ± 0.24. The developed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ZOP in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures containing different percentages of its degradation products, and pharmaceutical dosage form. The degradation products were separated by HPLC as well as identified by TLC, infrared (IR), and mass spectrometry (MS) to confirm its structures and elucidate degradation pathway. The developed methods were validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The results obtained by the proposed methods were statistically compared with the reported methods revealing high accuracy and good precision.

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Abstract  

The k 0-method of INAA standardization has been implemented using the irradiation facilities of the fast pneumatic rabbit and some selected manually loaded irradiation positions, which designated for short and long irradiation, respectively, at Egypt second research reactor. The neutron flux parameters (f and α) in each site have been determined using Zr–Au sets as neutron flux monitors. The reference materials coal NIST 1632c and IAEA-Soil 7 were analyzed for data validation and good agreement between the experimental values and the certified values was obtained.

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Abstract  

Participation in inter-comparison programs is an important process to enhance the accuracy and precision of the analytical techniques. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory (INAA) at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), ETRR-2 INAA Laboratory, was participated in three inter-comparison tests organized by AFRA Research Reactor Project for Socio-economic development. AFRAIV-12 Inter-laboratory Analysis Test 2007 is the third inter-laboratory analysis test within that project. The laboratories were asked to analyze for 43 essential and toxic elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques, with neutron activation analysis as the common technique. Five materials were distributed to the participants representing foodstuff, medicinal plants and aquatic biomonitors according to the focus of the AFRA IV-12 2006–2010 project. In this paper the ETRR-2 INAA Laboratory results is evaluated.

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Abstract

Sustainable chemistry established one of kind standards to maintain protection of environment through using safer mobile phase composition and/or lower solvent consumption. A fast green micellar HPLC method was developed and applied for the first time aiming at simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine maleate, one of the most widely used antihistamine in combination with levochlopersatine fenodizoate or dextromethorphan hydrobromide or dexamethasone, in their pure forms, laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms used in alleviating the symptoms of cough resulting from common colds and allergy. The separation was achieved on Kinetex C18 column (100 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 2.6-μm particle size) using micellar aqueous mobile phase consisting of (30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 50 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 5) and ethanol (85:15) with UV detection at 230 nm. The four drugs were successfully separated using isocratic elution in a single run not exceeding 7 min. According to ICH guidelines, the method was confirmed to be linear, accurate and precise over the concentration ranges of 5–60 μg mL−1 for chlorpheniramine maleate, 10–100 μg mL−1 for levocloperastine fenodizoate and dextromethorphan hydrobromide and 5–30 μg mL−1 for dexamethasone. In addition, the greenness of the developed method was assessed using two different tools indicating their least hazardous effect on the environment.

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