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This paper presents the results of measurements of137Cs and134Cs content in air sampled during May 1986. Maximum concentrations:137Cs 2.94±0.01 Bq m–3 and134Cs 1.38±0.01 Bq m–3 were registered on May 3. Several other long lived radionuclides having -energies in the region 33 keV to 1365 keV were registered in the same samples two years later. The results of measurements of the total -activity in air for the same period are also presented.

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Quality of wheat grain is a complex trait that depends mostly on the quantity and quality of protein and unified interactions between high molecular glutenin, gliadin, low molecular glutenins and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype × environment interaction on quality and some agronomic traits in wheat. Twenty divergent genotypes of winter wheat, per five from Serbia, Russia, France and Hungary were analysed in this paper. Variability was observed for quality (grain protein content and sedimentation) and agronomic traits (thousand-grain weight and test weight) in three growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10). Genotypes were statistically analysed [basic statistical parameters, AMMI biplot for the content of protein, correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)] in order to assess the impact of different growing seasons on selected cultivars. AMMI analysis determined that 2008/09 was very significant for most of the genotypes. The Hungarian cultivar GK-Zugoly had the highest grain protein content (14.4%). Correlation analysis showed different relationships between the traits. PCA indicated that the total variation reflected the first two components represented with 80%, but the first principal component was more important. Results of this paper indicate that the varieties MV-Csardas and Pamyati Kalinenko can be used as a good source of genetic material for future breeding program for agro-ecological conditions of Vojvodina.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Milica Jovanović, Branko Milošević, Olga Dulović, Mijomir Pelemiš, Goran Stevanović, Tanja Tošić, Branka Stošović, and M.J. Zervos

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular relatedness of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) collected from patients of the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade. Among 40 isolates available for the investigation, 36 were identified as Enterococcus faecium, whereas 2 were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus raffinosus, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed 21 strain types, comprising 7 clusters which contained at least two isolates and 14 unique PFGE patterns. Although we searched for pathogenicity factor genes (gelE, cylB, asa1, efaAfs, esp, cpd, cob) in representatives of all macro-restriction patterns, they have been confirmed in only one clone of E. faecalis. Genes esp and hyl, commonly found in E. faecium, were yilded in 10 macro-restriction patterns of this species, and their presence could not be ascribed to clonally related strains (p = 0.05). All VRE isolates were multiresistant and positive for vanA gene. Twenty strains of VRE and 6 clusters obtained from Intensive care unit (ICU) are proof of intensive transmission of these microorganisms at this department. The results of this study suggest wide genotypic variability among the clinical VRE isolates, but also intrahospital dissemination of some of them.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Z. Dakić, A. Nikolić, L. Lavadinović, M. Pelemiš, I. Klun, O. Dulović, B. Milošević, G. Stevanović, I. Ofori-Belić, J. Poluga, Olgica Djurković-Djaković, and M. Pavlović



Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers.


A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed.


Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis.


Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Milica Jovanović, Sofie M. van Dorp, Mitra Drakulović, Dubravka Papić, Sladjana Pavić, Snežana Jovanović, Aleksandar Lešić, Miloš Korać, Ivana Milošević, and Ed J. Kuijper

Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile infections (CDIs) are among the most frequent healthcare-associated infections in Serbia. In 2013, Serbia participated in the European Clostridium difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) who launched a pilot study to enhance laboratory capacity and standardize surveillance for CDI. Two clinics of Clinical Center of Serbia [Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases (CITD) and Clinic of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology (COT)] from Belgrade and one general hospital from another metropolitan area of Serbia, Užice, participated. During a period of 3 months in 2013, all patients with diagnosed CDI were included. The CDI incidence rates in CITD, COT, and General Hospital Užice were 19.0, 12.2, and 3.9 per 10,000 patient-days, respectively. In total, 49 patients were enrolled in the study with average age of 72 years. A complicated course of CDI was found in 14.3% of all patients. Six (12.2%) of 49 patients died, but not attributable to CDI. Of 39 C. difficile isolates, available for ribotyping, 78.9% belonged to ribotype 027; other PCR ribotypes were 001, 015, 002, 005, 010, 014, and 276. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed low levels of MIC50 and MIC90 for metronidazole (0.5 μg/ml both) and vancomycin (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml), while 28 strains of ribotype 027 were resistant to moxifloxacin with MIC ≥4 μg/ml. National surveillance is important to obtain more insight in the epidemiology of CDI and to compare the results with other European countries. This study by ECDIS-Net gives bases for a national surveillance of CDI in Serbia.

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