Authors:M. Gholipoor, K. Ghasemi-Golezani, F. R. Khooie, and M. Moghaddam
In order to investigate the effects of salinity on the early seedling growth of chickpea, four chickpea cultivars, Jam, Hashem (kabuli type: large seeded genotypes with light salmon colour), Kaka and Pirooz (desi type: small seeded genotypes with different colours), were grown in pots containing soils with 0.9 (control), 2.6 and 4.9 dSm-1 salinity. The shoot/root ratio of Pirooz was consistently reduced by increasing salinity at all sampling stages. Under saline conditions, the reduction in seedling growth, shoot water content, root and shoot K+ concentration and the increase in root and shoot Na+ concentration were more severe in the kabuli type than in desi type cultivars. Considering path coefficients, increasing seedling K+ concentration and uptake of water from the soil favoured salt-stressed seedling growth. Increasing K+ content alleviated the deleterious effects of root Na+ to a greater extent than that of shoot Na+. On the other hand, a higher percentage of the decrease in seedling growth as the result of Na+ was due to shoot K+ deficiency than to root K+ deficiency.
Authors:H Fathi-Moghaddam, M Kesmati, and H Mohammad Pour Kargar
The nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (LPGi) is located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a brain stem region that regulates homeostatic functions such as blood pressure and cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, pain and opiate withdrawal syndrome. LPGi has many anatomical relationships with important nuclei such as arcute nucleus, caudal raphe nucleus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), locus coeruleus (LC), and dentate. In this study we have examined the role of LPGi in the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine in the presence and absence of clonidine in the rat. We used 49 male N-MRI rats which were divided into 7 groups randomly: 1: Control, 2: Control+saline, 3: sham control, 4: lesion, 5: lesion +0.02 mg/kg clonidine, 6: lesion +0.2 mg/kg clonidine, 7: lesion +2 mg/kg clonidine. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine (110 mg/kg) and rampune (Xylazine) (3 mg/kg) mixture. In the process of surgery LPGi nucleus has been destroyed bilaterally by DC electrical current (1 mA, 6 second), with stainless steel electrode placed in stereotaxic coordinates of (AP=11.8, Lat1.86 and Depth=10.5). After the recovery period, they were treated with clonidine one hour before the application of Hand's method to induce CPP. We have not found any significant differences between the results of control, control+saline and sham groups in the CPP test but there is a significant increase in the CPP time between sham and LPGi lesion+saline groups (P<0.019). Clonidine at different doses (0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg/kg) have decreased CPP time in LPGi lesioned group in comparison with lesioned+saline group as well (p<0.002). In this study we have also demonstrated that clonidine has not any effects on the CPP time in the intact animals. Our results indicate that LPGi lesion induces CPP. It seems that LPGi is involved in drug reinforcements and also LPGi lesion induces sensitivity to 2 adrenergic agonist.
Authors:A. Pour-Aboughadareh, J. Ahmadi, A.A. Mehrabi, A. Etminan, and M. Moghaddam
The knowledge about genetic diversity in the wild relatives of wheat provides useful information for breeding programs and gene pool management. In the present study, an assessment of agro-morphological diversity and molecular variability among 70 accessions of Triticum, belonging to T. boeoticum, T. urartu, T. durum and T. aestivum species, collected from different regions of Iran was made. According to phenotypic analysis, all traits except peduncle length, stem diameter and the number of seeds per spike indicated a high level of diversity among studied accessions. Also, principal component analysis identified six components that explained 87.53% of the total variation in agro-morphological traits. In molecular analysis, 15 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers produced 166 bands, out of which, 162 (97.59%) were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the 63% of the variation resided among populations. The maximum value of polymorphism information content (PIC), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nie’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) was detected for T. boeoticum than the other species. The SCoT-based tree revealed three different groups corresponding to the genomic constitution in Triticum germplasm, which was in part confirmed by STRUCTURE and principal coordinate (PCoA) analyses. Our results indicated a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied Iranian Triticum species, especially T. boeoticum, which can be of interest for future breeding and other analyses associated with future studies of the wild relatives of wheat. More importantly, our results revealed that SCoT markers could be used to accurate evaluate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among different Triticum species.