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  • Author or Editor: M. Naghavi x
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Short arm of rye chromosome 1 (1RS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement is being widely utilized by many plant breeders. The 1BL.1RS translocation derived from the Russian wheat cultivar “Kavkaz”, carring genes for major wheat diseases such as stem, strip and leaf rusts and powdery mildew resistance. The 1AL.1RS translocation derived from “Amigo”, possessing resistance genes for stem rust, powdery mildew and greenbug. The distribution of the wheat-rye translocations 1BL.1RS and 1AL.1RS was studied in 44 Iranian wheat cultivars (29 bread wheat cultivars and 15 durum wheats). In this study the presence of the translocations was identified in 5 cultivars (Dez, Atrak, Rasul, Falat and Moghan3), using SDS-PAGE technique and 3 DNAmarkers based PCR. The both results of PCR based markers and SDS-PAGE showed that the frequency of the 1BL.1RS in Iranian bread wheat is very low (5 cultivars of bread wheat) and 1AL.1RS did not exist in Iranian wheat backgrounds. Such techniques are quick and reliable tools to recognize and to distinguish these two wheat-rye translocations in wheat genetic background.

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Application of glutenin macro-polymer (GMP) gel analysis compared to conventional wheat quality indicators such as total protein content, Zeleny, and SDS sedimentation values was evaluated in quality classification of 13 Iranian wheat cultivars. The results showed no significant correlation between total protein content and breadmaking characteristics. Zeleny, SDS sedimentation and GMP tests showed significant correlation with loaf volume and bread height. GMP wet weight and small-strain deformation rheological characteristic of GMP-gel were correlated with large-strain deformation rheological properties of dough measured in Farinograph and bread quality (loaf volume and height). Significant (α < 0.01) correlation was found between rheological properties of the GMP gel and Farinograph characteristics of dough. Although GMP wet weight is regarded as a predictive measure for breadmaking quality of wheat, in the light of the results of this rather small sample set we did not find significant correlation between small-strain rheological properties of GMP-gel (storage modulus and tan δ) and breadmaking characteristics.

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A RFLP approach was used to investigate polymorphism of ω -gliadin genes in Ae. tauschii using a F 2 population from the cross of accessions AUS18913 and CPI110856. A set of 150 F 2 progenies was genotyped by acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) and only one recombinant line of Gli-D t 1/Gli-D t T1 was observed. Twelve restriction enzymes were initially tested on genomic DNA of the two parents of which four restriction enzymes revealed polymorphism. Of these four, only Dra I was associated with the novel ω -gliadin gene (T 1 ) using a 1,200 bp DNA fragment of a ω -gliadin gene as a gene-specific probe. The ω -gliadin gene (T 1 ) may be of interest for further studies relating storage proteins and wheat bread-making quality.

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In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 74 barley accessions; 15 landraces (Hordeum vulgare) and 59 wild accessions (twenty-one Hordeum spontaneum, ten Hordeum bulbosum, thirteen Hordeum murinum and fifteen Hordeum marinum). A total of 66 alleles were detected at 12 SSR loci, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus in the entire samples. The average number of alleles (4.2) per locus was higher in H. vulgare and H. spontaneum, reflecting more genetic diversity within these two species compared with the other species. All index values of genetic diversity revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within H. vulgare landraces than within the wild species, indicating that cultivation unlikely to have caused a loss of genetic diversity in cultivated barley compared with its wild relatives. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 31% of the total observed variation was accounted for among species. Based on neighbor-joining clustering, the five species were classified into three main groups: (i) all accessions of H. marinum and H. bulbosum plus two accessions of H. murinum; (ii) H. vulgare and H. spontaneum accessions, in small, separated groups; and (iii) the remaining accessions of H. murinum. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) for SSR data also supported the neighbor-joining clustering. These results have important implications for barley germplasm characterization, improvement, molecular systematics and conservation.

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Twenty four SSR primer pairs were used to determine the genetic diversity in the subspecies of Aegilops tauschii . All microsatellite markers showed a high level of polymorphism. The average number of alleles observed was relatively similar in subsp. tauschii (9.00) to that in strangulata (8.30). The tauschii group had also similar average PIC value (0.80) with the strangulata group (0.77). The range of similarity was higher in subsp. tauschii than subsp. strangulata , reflecting a higher level of genetic variation in the first subspecies. Cluster and PCO analyses revealed a relative pattern of differentiation between two taxonomic classified subspecies, but there were some exceptional accessions in each group, reflecting possible intermediate forms between these two subspecies. Wide distribution of alleles found in both subspecies can be used for wheat improvement.

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Abstract  

In order to complete having data base of elemental assessment of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine sediments along the South China Sea coasts, trace elements are analyzed and their distribution in marine sediments is undertaken. The present study is done parallel with pervious study on elemental assessment of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides in the marine sediments of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty surface sediment samples were collected in this area, including regions of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Rompin and Johor Baharu. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In both cases methodology validation was performed by certified reference material analyses. For the surface elemental distributions the enrichment factor values, average I geo and mC d values indicate that the trace elements of the surface sediments are uncontaminated in all sampling stations that are consistent with previous studies results of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides.

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Abstract  

Some vegetables of important nutritive requirements have been collected from Kuala Lumpur region capital of Malaysia. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine activity concentration level of potassium using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA results obtained showed the activity concentration of 40K varied from 379 Bq/kg (Egg-plant) to 1585 Bq/kg (Spinach Red). These results are compared to other researches and are clear that the concentrations of K are relatively high in the Malaysia in compared to rather than vegetables of Pakistan and Jamaican. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to ingestion given the realities of vegetables choice by individuals in the study area.

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Simple sequence repeat (SSR) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity in 70 accessions of Aegilops crassa from Iran as well as to determine relationships among these accessions with 9 accessions of Aegilops tauschii (subsp. tauschii and strangulata ) and 5 Triticum aestivum landraces. All twenty SSR primer pairs were polymorphic and identified a total number of 149 alleles corresponding to an average of 7.5 alleles per locus. The highest and lowest PIC values were obtained in subsp. strangulata and Ae. crassa accessions, respectively. Data obtained were used to estimate genetic similarity using the Dice coefficient, and dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA method. The dendrogram separated the 84 accessions into two main groups. All species grouped according to their genomes. A good level of genetic diversity was observed in the accessions of Ae. crassa , even in geographically close regions, which can be used in the broadening of the genetic base of bread wheat. In addition, T. aestivum and subsp. tauschii were clustered further away from Ae. crassa , confirming probably chromosomal rearrangements in the Dgenome of Ae. crassa during the processes of evolution.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: B. Siahsar, S. Peighambari, A. Taleii, M. Naghavi, A. Nabipour, and A. Sarrafi

Despite the importance of barley as an animal feed, its forage quality has usually been neglected in breeding programs. In order to map the genomic regions, which modify barley forage quality, a population of 72 F 1 -derived doubled haploid lines (DH) from the cross “Steptoe/Morex” and their two parents were sown in Karaj and Zabol provinces of Iran, in each under a randomized complete block arrangement with two replications. Forage samples were oven-dried and ground and dry matter digestibility (DMD), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), crude fiber (CF), crude protein (CP), water-soluble carbohydrates and ash content were measured by NIRS. Analysis of variance showed that genotype, environment and genotype-environment interaction have significant effects on almost all studied traits. Several QTLs were resolved for each studied trait in both environments. Highest LOD scores were obtained for CF, ADF and DMD on chromosome 2H and for ash and CP on chromosomes 3H and 5H, respectively. QTLs for NDF were present on all chromosomes except 4H and 7H. QTL × environment interaction and the specificity of the QTLs are discussed.

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