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  • Author or Editor: M. Nikolova x
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Abstract  

DTA and DSC were used to study the thermal behaviour of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, Cd(NO3)2·4H2O, Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and their deuterated analogues. Evidence was found concerning the process of melting of the initial hydrates and deuterates, followed by a one-stage dehydration of the melt to vield the respective anhydrous salt. T m, ΔH m o , ΔS m o and ΔH deh o were determined and the ΔH f o values for the investigated hydrates were calculated from the ΔH deh o data.

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Abstract  

The thermal dehydration and decomposition of Zn(BF4)2·6H2O have been studied by TG, DTA and DSC analyses. It is found that the dehydration occurs in two steps. Following the experimental results a thermal decomposition scheme of the compound under investigation is proposed. The enthalpies of dehydration have been determined as well as the formal kinetic parameters are presented.

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The percentage of thermal dehydration and decomposition of ordinary and deuterated hydrates of barium acetate (tri- and monohydrates) were studied with a derivatograph and by DSC method. The observed phase transitions were identified and their corresponding enthalpy changes determined. The latter were compared with those estimated on thermodynamic data. The conclusions made on the dehydration process in correlation with IR spectra were used as information about the structure of the dehydrated water in the compounds investigated. The end product was also identified as barium carbonate.

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The surface flavonoid distributions of 20 samples of 12 Salvia species originating from Hungary or Bulgaria were surveyed. The majority of the flavonoids proved to be flavones. The most common constituents of the exudates were apigenin, luteolin and scutellarein 6,7,4'-trimethyl ether (salvigenin). Flavonols were found only in S. ringens. No significant variation in flavonoid profile was observed between the samples with different origins. The flowers of the plants studied were richer than the leaves and stems in flavonoids.

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Enzyme-assisted extraction of carotenoids from tomato peels of the Bulgarian cultivar “Stela”, one of the most widely used cultivars by the canning industry, was examined in this study. The carotenoid content in raw tomato peels was established by HPLC analysis. A two-step protocol was followed: the tomato peels were first treated with enzymes and then extracted by the use of acetone as a solvent for 30 min at 20±1 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 1:30. The total carotenoid, lycopene, and β-carotene extraction yields were increased by the use of pectinase, cellulase, endo-xylanase, and proteinase enzymes in comparison with the non-enzyme-treated samples. The increase in the extraction yield was affected by the enzymes used, the enzyme concentration, the pretreatment time and temperature. Maximum total carotenoid (55.15 mg/100 g d.w.), β-carotene (35.85 mg/100 g d.w.), and lycopene (15.44 mg/100 g d.w.) extraction yields were obtained in peels pretreated with mixed cellulase (100 U g−1) and endo-xylanase (400 U g−1) for 4 h at 50 °C. Carotenoid recovery by mixed cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzyme pretreatment of tomato peels is a good approach, which can be used for waste utilization.

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