The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 48 geological samples from the Umm Al-Birak area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 2.4 ·1012 n·cm–2 s–1 in the reactor facilities of the National Tsing Hua University (THOR) in Taiwan. Gamma-spectra from the high resolution Ge(Li) detector were analyzed using the BRUTAl code. As a result of the analysis of the geological samples, 20 trace elements were identified qualitatively and quantitatively. These elements are: Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr. The concentrations of these elements have been used in the investigations of the geochemistry of the Umm Al-Birak microgranite site using the BMDP computer code of the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources. This investigation showed that the high grade area is a differentiated rock that crystallized in a late stage of the Umm Al-Birak microgranite area.
Authors:M. Raoof, A. Naeem, R. Zaghloul, A. Abdul-Fattah, and M. Obeid
Multielemental analysis of an iron ore from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation
Analysis (INAA) with Ge(Li) detectors. The spectra were analysed with the help of an off-line computer programme. Twenty five
elements are observed to be present in the ore. The elements of major interest are Fe, Al and Ca with 51.5%, 3.6% and 2.2%
Authors:Khadiga G. Adham, Manal H. Farhood, Maha H. Daghestani, Nadia A. Aleisa, Ahlam A. Alkhalifa, Maha H. El Amin, Promy Virk, Mai A. Al-Obeid, and Eman M. H. Al-Humaidhi
One of the common causes of iron overload is excessive iron intake in cases of iron-poor anemia, where iron saccharate complex (ISC) is routinely used to optimize erythropoiesis. However, non-standardized ISC administration could entail the risk of iron overload. To induce iron overload, Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with subacute (0.2 mg kg−1) and subchronic (0.1 mg kg−1) overdoses of ISC for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Iron status was displayed by an increase in transferrin saturation (up to 332%) and serum and liver iron burden (up to 19.3 μmol L−1 and 13.2 μmol g−1 wet tissue, respectively) together with a drop in total and unsaturated iron binding capacities “TIBC, UIBC” as surrogate markers of transferrin activity. Iron-induced leukocytosis (up to 140%), along with the decline in serum transferrin markers (up to 43%), respectively, mark positive and negative acute phase reactions. Chemical stress was demonstrated by a significant rise (p > 0.05) in indices of the hemogram (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes) and stress metabolites [corticosterone (CORT) and lactate]. Yet, potential causes of the unexpected decline in serum activities of ALT, AST and LDH (p > 0.05) might include decreased hepatocellular enzyme production and/or inhibition or reduction of the enzyme activities. The current findings highlight the toxic role of elevated serum and liver iron in initiating erythropoiesis and acute phase reactions, modifying iron status and animal organ function, changing energy metabolism and bringing about accelerated glycolysis and impaired lactate clearance supposedly by decreasing anaerobic threshold and causing premature entering to the anaerobic system.