Granulomatous lesions in bovine and especially swine lymph nodes are still frequently observed during routine veterinary meat inspections even though Mycobacterium bovis infections are no longer detected in domestic animals in Slovenia. Different lymph nodes of pigs (n = 260) were investigated using classical bacteriological and molecular methods. Mycobacterium avium alone was isolated in 47.3% of pigs and in mixed infection with Rhodococcus equi in 3.9% of pigs. R. equi alone was isolated in 27.3% and in mixed infection with mycobacteria other than M. avium in 1.5% of pigs. A total of 133 M. avium isolates were typed using the IS1245, IS901 and FR300 PCR. Almost two thirds (60.9%) of isolates belonged to M. avium hominissuis (IS901-, IS1245+ genotype), 33.8% of isolates belonged to M. avium avium (IS901+, IS1245+ genotype) and 5.3% of isolates remained non-typed. Fifty out of 85 R. equi isolates were tested for the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB). Nearly two thirds (60.0%) were positive for VapB while all the other isolates were VapA- and VapB-negative.
During a five-year period (2000 to 2004) 74,342 pigs were tested by the intradermal tuberculin test in Croatia. Of them, 248 (0.33%) pigs were positive and 91 (0.12%) were found to be suspicious in 7 out of the 13 farms included in the study. Gross pathological changes characteristic of tuberculosis were observed in tuberculin-positive and/or suspicious swine. Mycobacterium was isolated from the lymph nodes of 183 out of 234 swine (78.2%). For better epidemiological understanding, isolates were typed by conventional methods, PCR and hybridisation. The results show that most of the isolates belonged to the
complex (175 isolates, 95.7%). Other isolates belonged to
(6 isolates, 3.3%),
(1 isolate, 0.5%), and
(1 isolate, 0.5%). Isolated strains of the
complex were identified as
M. a. avium
(37 isolates, 21.1%) and
M. a. hominissuis
(138 isolates, 78.9%).
This work presents the results of findings for brucellosis in wild boars and domestic swine in two regions of Croatia. In the region of Djakovo the blood samples of 211 wild boars were analysed and in 29.4% of the samples serologically positive reactions were established. In the same region the blood samples of 1080 domestic swine on pastures were also analysed and positive serological reactions were established in 12.3%. In the regions around Lonjsko Polje the blood samples of 53 wild boars were analysed and in 22.6% of them positive serological reactions were established. On several locations around Lonjsko Polje the blood samples of 901 domestic swine were serologically analysed and 13.5% of the swine were found to be seropositive. Bacteriological analyses of submitted materials from 24 wild boars resulted in isolation of Brucella from seven (29.2%) samples, and from 43 samples originating from domestic swine that had aborted and had been serologically positive, Brucella were isolated from 25 (58.1%) swine, as well as from 10 (62.5%) out of 16 aborted piglets. In all the isolates Brucellasuis biovar 2 was identified. Wild boars are carriers and reservoirs of Brucellasuis biovar 2 in Croatia.