The aim of this study was to determine the influence of goat’s milk fermented by
Bb-46 on pathogenic
strain, as well as to determine the differences of inhibitory potential between fermented goat’s and cow’s milk. The results showed significantly higher inhibitory effect of fermented goat’s milk on the growth of
compared to that of fermented cow’s milk. Fermented goat’s milk inhibited the growth of
during the whole fermentation period. In contrast to fermented goat’s milk, weaker inhibitory effect of fermented cow’s milk was observed only during the first phase of fermentation (incompletely fermented samples with higher pH values and lower number of viable cells of
Bb-46). The obtained results suggested that there was no correlation between changes of pH or CFU of
Bb-46 during fermentation and the inhibitory effect of fermented cow’s and goat’s milk. However, the results suggested some correlation between the inhibition of
growth and the content of SCFA and MCFA in fermented cow’s milk. At the same time, considerably higher amounts of all examined SCFA and MCFA were produced in goat’s milk in all the phases of the fermentation process.
This study was carried out to determine the intensity of production of acetic acid, short (SCFA) and medium (MCFA) chain fatty acids in cow and goat milk fermented by the use of Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46. Amounts of SCFA and MCFA in fermented goat and cow milk were determined by the use of GC/FID method. Concentration of acetic acid in the samples of fermented goat and cow milk were measured using GC/MS method. Furthermore, the growth rates of Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46 and its fermentation activity in goat and cow milk were also determined. Obtained results suggest higher metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46 in goat than in cow milk. Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46 grew better in goat than in cow milk. Consequently, pH values decreased more rapidly during the fermentation of goat milk. Contents of all the examined SCFA and MCFA, as well as of acetic acid, increased more rapidly in goat milk during the whole fermentation process.
We examined the concentrations of vitamin E (vit E), sulphydryl groups (-SH), total protein and protein electrophoretic profiles in the hepatopancreas, the gills and muscle of three freshwater crayfish species: Noble crayfish (Astacus astacus), stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) and spiny cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus). Vit E concentration in the hepatopancreas of O. limosus was lower compared to A. astacus, while in the gills of O. limosus it was lower compared to both A. astacus and A. torrentium. The concentration of -SH groups was lower in the hepatopancreas of A. astacus compared to A. torrentium and O. limosus. In the gills of A. astacus and A. torrentium the concentration of -SH groups was higher compared to O. limosus. Protein concentration was higher in the hepatopancreas of A. torrentium compared to A. astacus and O. limosus. A lower protein concentration in muscle of A. torrentium was found compared to O. limosus and A. astacus. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins indicated species and tissue specifities between investigated crayfish species. Our results represent the first study of its kind and provide the basis for future studies that will consider our reported parameters as potential biomarkers for biomonitoring of basic environmental conditions and some anthropogenic impacts.
Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers.
A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed.
Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis.
Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account.