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Kidney samples from chickens diagnosed with acute nephritis and gout were subjected to histological and electron microscopic examination. The investigations revealed cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the tubular epithelial cells containing round virions of about 30 nm in diameter. Since avian nephritis virus (ANV) is known as a potential causative agent of the so-called baby chick nephropathy, an RT-PCR assay was developed for the molecular detection of ANV-specific nucleic acid in the specimen. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by direct sequencing of the amplicon obtained in the reaction. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 92% identity with the reference ANV sequence deposited in the GenBank database. After having been validated on some other suspicious cases of avian nephritis, the PCR method described in this study can be a potential tool for routine diagnostic examination of samples submitted from cases of gout and nephropathy in chickens.

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The occurrence of two important pathogens, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) causing abortions, perinatal foal mortality and respiratory disease, was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation to demonstrate the presence of abortigenic viruses in samples from 248 horse fetuses in Hungary. We found 26 EHV1- and 4 EAV-positive aborted or prematurely born foals from 16 and 4 outbreaks, respectively, proving that despite the widely applied vaccination, EHV1 is a far more important cause of abortions in the studs than EAV. We compared the virus content of different organs of the fetuses by PCR and isolation to identify the organ most suitable for virus demonstration. Our investigations indicate that the quantity of both viruses is highest in the lungs; therefore, according to our observations, in positive cases the probability of detection is highest from lung samples of aborted or newborn foals. Both the PCR and the virus isolation results revealed that the liver, though widely used, is not the best organ to sample either for EHV1 or for EAV detection. From the analysis of the epidemiological data, we tried to estimate the importance of the two viruses in the Hungarian horse population.

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The full sequence of the fiber gene and partial sequence of the putative 17 kD protein gene of bovine adenovirus-2 (BAdV-2) were determined. The size of the fiber gene of BAdV-2 proved to be 561 amino acids, of which the amino acids 37 to 385 form a typical shaft domain of 22 repetitive motifs. On the complementary strand, a gene homologous to the 17 kD protein coded in the E4 region of several human adenoviruses was found. The sequence analysis seems to confirm the presence of an intron in the sequenced part of the E4 region.

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Viruses of the honey bee have been known for a long time; however, recently the attention of scientists and apiculturalists has turned towards the relationship between these viruses and the parasitic miteVarroa jacobsoni. Although clinical symptoms indicated the presence of some of the viruses of bees in Hungary, none have previously been isolated or identified. During July unusual adult bee and brood mortality was observed in some colonies of an apiary in Budapest known to be infested withVarroa jacobsoni. Large amounts of acute paralysis virus (APV) were detected serologically in healthy honey bee pupae killed by the injection of a bacteria-free extract of diseased adult bees. Crystalline arrays of 30 nm particles were seen in ultrathin sections of the tissues of injected pupae and naturally infected adult bees. In spite of the application of acaricide treatments the bee population in several colonies had collapsed by the end of summer and the apiary suffered severe wintering losses.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
G. Tornyos
,
Melinda Kovács
,
M. Rusvai
,
P. Horn
,
J. Fodor
, and
F. Kovács

Only few data are available on the effect of fumonisins on the immune response. The aim of the present study was to examine whether dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1) has any effect on the humoral and cellular immune response in weaned pigs, depending on the dose and the time of toxin exposure. Fusarium moniliforme fungal culture was added to the experimental animals' diet to ensure an FB1 intake of 1, 5 and 10 ppm (first experiment) or 100 mg per animal per day (second experiment). The control animals were fed a toxin-free diet. In order to determine the immune response, the animals were vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease with inactivated vaccine (Aujespig K, Phylaxia-Sanofi, Budapest, Hungary). Specific and nonspecific in vitro cellular immune response was measured by the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) induced by PHA-P, Con A, LPS and inactivated suspension of the Aujeszky's disease virus. Humoral immune response, e.g. specific antibody titre, was measured by the virus neutralisation (VN) test. None of the immunological parameters examined showed significant differences between groups. It could be concluded that fumonisin B1 had no significant effect on the humoral and cellular specific and nonspecific immune response when fed in a high dose (100 mg/animal/day for 8 days) or in a low concentration even for a longer period (1, 5 and 10 ppm for 3-4 months).

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One of the plasmids present in a Haemophilus somnus strain isolated from nasal discharge of a cattle with respiratory disease was purified and cloned for DNA sequencing. The plasmid was found to be 1065 base pairs long with 39.2% G+C content, and showed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. It has no capacity to code any protein longer than 43 residues. It is not clear yet if this plasmid codes Haemophilus somnus specific factors.

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