In this study, the effects of 18 different additive formulas constituted with xanthan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) gums (hydrocolloids) were examined in the manufacture of corn starch based gluten-free bread. The additives used as alone or in combinations in the bread manufacture. It was also added with mono- and diglyceride based gel preparations and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides for improving glutenfree bread characteristics. The volumes and softness of the breads have been measured as maximum when HPMC was used alone in increasing order from 1 to 2%. While HPMC gum improved the volume and softness of bread more than Xanthan gum, Xanthan gum improved the grain structure of crumb more than HPMC. In general, these hydrocolloids gave a good quality of bread in terms of moisture content, grain structure and Neumann baking coefficient values, when they were used with combinations rather than being used individually. Addition of surfactant to all combinations always enhanced the grain structure of bread. In contrast, it either worsened or did not change the volume and softness of the bread.
Authors:M Savran, E Cicek, DK Doguc, H Asci, S Yesilot, IA Candan, B Dagdeviren, FN Cankara, M Oncu, AC Uğuz and MK Ozer
Like several other anticancer drugs, methotrexate (MTX) causes side effects, such as neuropathic pain, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. Abnormal production of reactive oxygen species has been suspected in the pathophysiology of MTX-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the probable protective role of vitamin C (Vit C) on oxidative stress induced by MTX in the liver and kidney tissues of rats. A total of 32 rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups. The first group served as the control group. The second group received a single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX intraperitoneally. To demonstrate our hypothesis, the third and the fourth groups received 250 mg/kg of Vit C for 3 days by oral gavage, with or without MTX treatment. At the end of the study, the liver and kidney tissues of the rats were collected and examined using histology. Both the tissues were assayed for malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. In hepatic and renal tissues, lipid peroxidation levels were increased, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px levels were decreased by MTX. All parameters, including CAT levels in hepatic tissue, were significantly restored after the administration of Vit C for 3 days. Similar to the biochemical findings, evidence of oxidative damage was examined in both types of tissues by histopathological examination. From the results of this study, we were able to observe that Vit C administration modulates the antioxidant redox system and reduces the renal and hepatic oxidative stress induced by MTX. Vit C can ameliorate the toxic effect of MTX in liver and kidney tissues of rat.