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  • Author or Editor: M. S. Shaukat x
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Summary  

The adsorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution on a Pakistani coal powder has been studied as a function of shaking time, amount of adsorbent, pH, and strontium ion concentration. Conditions for the maximum adsorption of strontium ions have been established. Results reveal that the diffusion of strontium ions into the pores of coal powder occurs during the adsorption process and intra-particle diffusion controls the kinetics of the process. The Langmuir and D-R adsorption equations are valid over the entire range of studied concentration. The influence of different anions on the adsorption of strontium ions was also studied.

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Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) is well known for its biocontrol potential against a variety of insects. Nematicidal potential of ten B.t isolates was tested against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood) in vitro, under greenhouse as well as in field conditions. Eggs and second stage juveniles (J2) were exposed to 5 and 25% concentrations of bacterial cell-free aqueous extracts up to 96 h. B.t isolates showed lesser degrees of nematicidal activity at 5% concentration. However, some B.t isolates (B.t-14, B.t-16 and B.t-64) greatly reduced egg hatching and increased J2. All B.t isolates revealed suppressed egg hatching and increased mortality of J2 at 25% concentration. Soil applications with most of the B.t isolates under greenhouse and field conditions significantly improved height and fresh weights of root-knot nematode parasitized okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Some isolates, including B.t-64 reduced the number of galls and egg masses. B.t-64 reduced gall formation up to 70% under greenhouse conditions. However, 29% of decrease was observed in field conditions. Similarly, B.t-64 treated plants showed a 56% decreased in eggs/egg mass in a field experiment. Population of root-knot nematodes in the rhizosphere was decreased up to 61% in the field experiment as compared to control.

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