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Abstract  

Oxamniquine (OXA) is a schistosomicide agent that causes some adverse effects in central nervous system. Intending to improve OXA therapeutic properties, a polymeric prodrug was designed. Currently, there is an increasing interest of thermal analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical area, so differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG) were carried out to evaluate the thermal behavior of OXA, polymethacrylic acid (PMA), [poly(methacrylic-co-oxamniquine methacrylate)acid] (PMOXA) and physical mixture (OXA+PMA). The thermoanalytical profile of the physical mixture showed characteristic events of the thermal decomposition of OXA and PMA. Distinctly, PMOXA DTA curve did not show an endothermic peak at 148.5C indicating that the drug was incorporated into the polymeric system. These results were corroborated by the IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data.

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Abstract  

In the present work, the thermal decomposition of glimepiride (sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent) was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were employed to determine kinetic data of decomposition process. The physical chemical properties and compatibilities of several commonly used pharmaceutical excipients (glycolate starch, microcrystalline cellulose, stearate, lactose and Plasdone) with glimepiride were evaluated using thermoanalytical methods. The 1:1 physical mixtures of these excipients with glimepiride showed physical interaction of the drug with Mg stearate, lactose and Plasdone. On the other hand, IR results did not evidence any chemical modifications. From isothermal experiments, activation energy (E a) can be obtained from slope of lnt vs. 1/T at a constant conversion level. The average value of this energy was 123 kJ mol–1. For non-isothermal method E a can be obtained from plot of logarithms of heating rates, as a function of inverse of temperature, resulting a value of 157 and 150 kJ mol–1, respectively, in air and N2 atmosphere, from the first stage of thermal decomposition.

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Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures and drugs are capable to interfere on this labeling. Lantana camara (lantana) has medicinal properties and it has been used in folk medicine. The aim is to verify the effect of a lantana extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc. Blood of rats was incubated with extract, stannous chloride and 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. The % of radioactivity (%ATI) in these samples was calculated. Samples of labeled BC were washed and the %ATI maintained (%ATI-M) in the BC was determined. The results showed that lantana extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the IF-P from 70.24±2.59 to 11.95±3.07. This effect was not observed in the BC and IF-BC. The BC-%ATI-M was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all concentrations tested when the BC was washed. This fact was not observed in the control. Substances present on the extract should have redoxi action decreasing the concentration of the stannous ion and this condition could justify the effect on the IF-P. The results about the BC-%ATI-M should indicate a possible effect on the transport of ions through the erythrocyte membrane.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. Vasconcelos, M. Dantas, M. Filho, R. Rosenhaim, E. Cavalcanti, N. Antoniosi Filho, F. Sinfrônio, I. Santos, and A. Souza

Abstract  

The influence of drying processes in the biodiesel oxidation was investigated by means of the oxidative induction time obtained from differential scanning calorimetry data. For this purpose, corn biodiesel was dried by different methods including: chemical (anhydrous sodium sulfate) and thermal (induction heating, heating under vacuum and with microwave irradiation). The drying efficiency was evaluated by monitoring IR absorption in the 3,500–3,200 cm−1 range and by the AOCS Bc 2-49 method. In general, the oxidative induction times increased inversely to the heating degree, except that of microwave irradiation, which was selective to water evaporation and caused low impact over the unsaturation of biodiesel. The DSC technique was shown to be a powerful tool to evaluate with high level of differentiation the influence of the drying process on the oxidative stability of biodiesel.

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Acetaminophen (AAP), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and dipyrone (DIP) are antipyretic and analgesics drugs that have wide use in health sciences. Some drugs can modify the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of AAP, ASA and DIP on the labeling of the blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of the drugs before the 99mTc-labeled process. Plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. Data have shown that the antipyretic drugs used in this study did not significantly modify the fixation of 99mTc on the blood elements when the experiments were carried out with the doses usually used in human beings. Although the experiments were carried out with rats, it is possible to suggest that AAP, ASA or DIP should not interfere with the procedures in nuclear medicine involving the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. G. Souza, I. P. Silva Filho, J. C. O. Santos, L. M. Nunes, I. M. G. Santos, L. E. B. Soledade, and M. M. Conceiçăo
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. C. O. Santos, M. G. O. Santos, J. P. Dantas, Marta M. Conceição, P. F. Athaide-Filho, and A. G. Souza
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Abstract

Biodiesel has the advantage of being renewable and clean and for these reasons has been studied recently both academically and in industry. Research in this area is focused on developing new synthetic routes to obtain a purer product or to find new alternative sources of food to replace conventional oils. Papaya biodiesel is obtained from oily residues with a fatty acid composition similar to olive oil. It is generally discarded by the ton, considering that Brazil is the world’s largest producer of papaya with an annual output of 1,811 million tons, productivity of 52 t/hectare and domestic consumption at 86.5%. This study was designed by means of thermal analysis (TG, DSC, P-DSC, and MT-DSC), to verify the possibility of achieving high quality biodiesel, with oxidative stability and flow properties previously indicated by composition analysis of its fatty esters, physical–chemical properties (including oxidative stability) using classical methodology, recommended by ASTM D 6756.

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Thermal analysis in sustainable development

Thermoanalytical study of faveleira seeds (Cnidoscolus quercifolius)

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. C. O. Santos, J. P. Dantas, C. A. Medeiros, P. F. Athaíde-Filho, Marta M. Conceiçăo, J. R. Santos Jr., and A. G. Souza
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. A. Candeia, F. S. M. Sinfrônio, T. C. Bicudo, N. Queiroz, A. K. D. Barros Filho, L. E. B. Soledade, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, and A. G. Souza

Abstract

Biodiesel oxidation is a complex process widely influenced by the chemical composition of the biofuel and storage conditions. Several oxidation products can be formed from these processes, depending on type and amount of the unsaturated fatty acid esters. In this work, fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters were obtained by base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and physicochemically characterized according to standards from ASTM, EN, and ABNT. The thermal and oxidative stabilities of biodiesel samples were investigated during the storage process by pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and by viscosity measurements. Absolute viscosities of biodiesels after accelerated aging were also determined. The viscosity increased as the aging temperature and time were raised. The results showed that oxidation induction can occur during storage, decreasing the biodiesel stability. PDSC analysis showed that during storage under climate simulation the values of high-pressure oxidative induction times (HPOIT) were reduced for both FAEE and FAME.

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