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An imbalance between calorie intake and energy expenditure produces obesity. It has been a major problem in societies of the developing and developed world. In obesity an excessive amount of fat accumulates in adipose tissue cells as well as in other vital organs like liver, muscles, and pancreas. The adipocytes contain ob genes and express leptin, a 16 kDa protein. In the present communication, we reviewed the molecular basis of the etiopathophysiology of leptin in obesity. Special emphasis has been given to the use of leptin as a drug target for obesity treatment, the role of diet in the modulation of leptin secretion, and reduction of obesity at diminished level of blood leptin induced by physical exercise.
Background and aims
Gambling disorder and its comorbid diagnoses are observed at higher rates in military veterans than in the general population. A significant research gap exists regarding the relationships of veterans’ life and service experiences to problematic gambling. The present study explored pre-, peri-, and post-deployment factors associated with problem gambling in veterans.
Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (n = 738; 463 males, and 275 females) completed questionnaires via structured telephone interview. We conducted bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses exploring associations among problem-gambling severity and socio-demographic variables, psychiatric comorbidities, and 10 scales of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory measuring experiences pre-, peri-, and post-deployment.
Approximately 4.2% of veterans indicated at-risk or probable pathological gambling (ARPG) post-deployment (two or more DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling). Bivariate analyses found more severe gambling in males, higher frequencies of post-traumatic stress disorder, substance dependence, traumatic brain injury, panic disorder, and depression in veterans with ARPG, and higher general harassment during deployment, and lower social support and more stressful life events post-deployment in those with ARPG. In multivariable models, both post-deployment factors remained significantly associated with ARPG.
The study suggests that problem gambling among veterans is related to service experiences, and particularly to life experiences post-deployment.
Adverse service and life experiences and lack of social support may contribute to the risk of problem gambling in military veterans. Investigation of how Veterans Affairs clinical settings may serve veterans following deployment to prevent behavioral addictions is warranted.