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Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis

III. Trace elements in african tea, ginger, canella bark, black pepper, sesame, lady's fingers, jew's mallow, tomatos, cucumber and marrow

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Sherif, R. Awadallah, and A. Amrallah

Abstract  

Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea, and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperaceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seeds (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made to the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppm to ppb).

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Determination of trace elements of egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis

II. Trace elements in umbelliferae and legumirosae families

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Sherif, R. Awadallah, and A. Mohamed

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis, NAA, a high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer was used to determine the concentration of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W, and Zn in Cumin, coriander, carrots, and Daucus carrota (Umbelliferae Family), alfalfa, Kidney bean, Phaseolus sativus, Phaseolus vulgaris, bean, lenses, and fenugreek (Legumirosae Family). Multielement determination technique on destructive and nondestructive samples was followed. This method is simple, precise and sensitive to 17 trace elements.

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Abstract  

Multielemental instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses are utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P. Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, V and Zn, ICP-AES for the determination Al, Ag, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn and flameless AAS for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in egg plant, potatoes, green pepper (Leguminosae), vegetable marrow (Cucurbitaceae), pears, apple (Rosaceae), castor oil plant (Euphorbiaceae), lettuce (compositae), dill, parsley, coriander (Umbelliferae), and in some soil samples collected from Aswan province.

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Abstract  

Major, minor, trace and ultratrace concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in crude juice, principal juice, sirup juice (produced during the successive stages of sugar industry), sugar cane plant, molasses, deposits (produced as a result of the addition of Ca(OH)2 and superphosphate and passage of SO2 through juice), A-and B-sugar and soil samples have been determined by destructive and nondestructive instrumental neutron activation (INAA), atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) analyses. The results obtained by the methods applied are in excellent agreement. Concentrations of the elements are different. Variations in element concentrations in cance plants and in crude juice may be attributed to composition changes or different botanical structures; in mixed juice, sirup, molasse and deposits they may be due to chemical treatments or corrosion effects on containers, whereas in soil samples to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation as a result of adsorption and uptake of trace elements by plants from surrounding soil solutions.

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Abstract  

The effect of temperature on the extraction of Co2+, Zn2+, Cd1+ and Hg2+ by salicylaldoxime diluted with carbon tetrachloride was investigated radiometrically. It is found that the extraction constants at 25°C increase linearly with l/r, where r is the effective coordination radius of the metal cation. The thermodynamic data calculated from the effect of temperature on the extraction showed that, 1) the extraction process is endothermic, 2) the dehydration of the metal cation in the extraction process is the predominating factor in determining the enthalpy variation and 3) the entropy variation is a contribution of the degree of order caused by the hydration of the proton and the highly ordered chelate structure of the extracted species.

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This study discusses the economic utilization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) based on cost of energy (COE) to supply residential electrical and thermal loads. The fuel cell system is sized using simplified mathematical expressions considering the stack degradation and the system salvage value at the end of its life time. The study is based on a 5 kWh/day residential load with a peak load power of 1300 W. Two scenarios for economic survey are studied. The first scenario is to find the commercial price for each FC component considering that the supply fuel is hydrogen. The other scenario is for a complete FC system commercial price considering that the supply fuel is natural gas. The economic analyses are based on the actual sale prices in the market. The COE of the fuel cell system is compared with previous work by the authors for the same residential ratings but supplied from a stand-alone photo voltaic system (SAPV). The analysis results show that the COE relies heavily on the capital cost of the system.

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