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Effects of fly ash amendments in soil (0%, 25% and 50% vol/vol), Ralstonia solanacearum, Meloidogyne incognita and Phomopsis vexans were observed on the growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of eggplant. Addition of 25% fly ash in soil caused a significant increase in plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents over plants grown without fly ash. However, amendments of 50% fly ash in soil had an adverse effect on the growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of eggplant. Inoculation of the pathogens caused a significant reduction in growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Inoculation of R. solanacearum caused the greatest reduction followed by P. vexans and M. incognita. Root galling and nematode multiplication was reduced with the increase in fly ash. Wilting and blight indices were 3 in plants grown in 0% and 25% fly ash amended soil while 4 in 50% fly ash amended soil.

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Characterization of synthesized A -zeolite

Simultaneous thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ICP-chemical analysis

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Abdillahi, M. Gharami, and M. Siddiqui

Abstract  

Confirmations of the successful synthesis of a particular zeolite demand investigation of the crystals by XRD, SEM, MAS-NMR and chemical analysis. In this work, we have used the DTA exothermic lattice breakdown of theA-zeolite, which gives typical peaks at around 900–1200°C for characterization. The effects ofpH, concentration, time of crystallization and temperature were studied and it was quickly and easily possible to distinguishA-zeolite formation from others originating from the synthesis matrix under different conditions by using DTA/TG analyses. The parameters were optimized for the synthesis of the zeolite and DTA measurements yielded enough information to identify theA-zeolite; this was confirmed by XRD and SEM.

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Abstract  

Four commercial Saudi Arabian crude oils were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). These crude oils, Arab Berri (AB), Arab Light (AL), Arab Medium (AM) and Arab Heavy (AH), were also subjected to the traditionally employed true boiling point (TBP) distillation and simulated distillation (SIMDIST). The TG/DTA data show that the hydrocarbons present in these crude oils fall into four groups: the volatiles, the low molecular weight, the medium molecular weight and the high molecular weight compounds. These four types of hydrocarbons were observed to display certain trends, such that the volatile and low molecular weight hydrocarbons increased, while the medium and high molecular weight hydrocarbons decreased with the lightness of the crude. The volatile contents of AB, AL, AM and AH crude oils up to 280�C were 50.1, 42.2, 42.3 and 38.5 mass percent, respectively. This confirms that AB is the lightest of these crude oils with maximum volatile content. The mass percentage loss from the TG results is in good agreement with the percentage distilled from TBP (ASTM D 2892) and SIMDIST. During evaporation, the TG mass loss follows a similar trend to those of the TBP and SIMDIST results and thus behaves like distillation. During the oxidative degradation, the TG curve shows a higher mass loss as compared to the distillation data. The higher deviation of the TG mass loss and percentage distilled at the higher-temperature end of the curve may be attributed to the higher content of asphaltenes and carbonaceous material present in AH as compared to the AB crude oil. At around 200�C, the TG mass loss curve intersects the TBP and SIMDIST curves and shows a derivation from distillation behaviour. This intersection temperature of the TG and distillation curves is observed to decrease with the heaviness of the crude and can be an indication of the onset of thermal degradation of hydrocarbons present in the crude oil. On the whole, the TG data closely resemble the distillation results.

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Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 μM) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 μM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1–6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

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An in vitro propagation system for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. has been developed. Due to the presence of sennosides, the demand of this plant has increased manyfold in global market. Multiple shoots were induced by culturing nodal explants excised from mature plants on a liquid Murashige and Skoog [8] medium supplemented with 5–100 μM of thidiazuron (TDZ) for different treatment duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d). The optimal level of TDZ supplemented to the culture medium was 75 μM for 12 d induction period followed by subculturing in MS medium devoid of TDZ as it produced maximum regeneration frequency (87%), mean number of shoots (9.6 ± 0.33) and shoot length (4.4 ± 0.46 cm) per explant. A culture period longer than 12 d with TDZ resulted in the formation of fasciated or distorted shoots. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots was dipped in 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile soilrite where 85% plantlets grew well and all exhibited normal development. The present findings describe an efficient and rapid plant regeneration protocol that can further be used for genetic transformation studies.

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Effect of Graphene oxide (GO) was observed on Meloidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseolina and on the growth of lentil in pot experiment. Treatment of plants with 10 ml solution of GO with 125, 250 and 500 ppm concentration caused a significant increase in plant dry weight over control. Inoculation of plants with M. incognita or M. phaseolina caused a significant reduction in plant dry weight over uninoculated control. Treatment of plants with 125, 250 and 500 ppm GO and subsequent inoculation with M. incognita or M. phaseolina caused a significant increase in plant dry weight over plants inoculated without GO pretreatment. Treatment of 500 ppm GO caused a greater increase in plant dry weight of M. incognita or M. phaseolina inoculated plants followed by 250 ppm and 125 ppm. Numbers of nodules per root system were high in plants without pathogen. Inoculation of M. incognita or M. phaseolina caused reduction in nodulation. However, treatment of GO in all the three concentrations had no significant effect on nodulation in plants both with and without pathogens. Treatment of GO resulted in reduced galling, nematode multiplication and root-rot index. Greater reduction in galling, nematode multiplication and root-rot index were observed in plants treated with 500 ppm GO followed by 250 ppm and 125 ppm. Indices were reduced to 4, 3 and 2, respectively, when plants with M. phaseolina were treated with 125, 250 and 500 ppm GO. This study shows that the use of GO is useful for the management of M. incognita and M. phaseolina on lentil.

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Effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were studied on lentil plants inoculated with Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Meloidogyne incognita. Plant growth, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nodulation of lentil both in the presence and absence of Rhizobium sp. were examined in a pot test. Inoculation of plants with A. alternata / F. oxysporum f. sp. lentis / X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli / P. syringae pv. syringae or M. incognita caused a significant reduction in plant growth, number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoids and NR activity over uninoculated control. Inoculation of plants with Rhizobium sp. with or without pathogen increased plant growth and number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoids and NR activity. When plants were grown without Rhizobium, a foliar spray of plants with 10 ml solution of 0.1 mg ml–1of ZnO NPs per plant caused a significant increase in plant growth and number of pods, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and NR activity in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Spray of ZnO NPs to plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. caused non significant increase in plant growth, number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and NR activity when plants were either uninoculated or inoculated with pathogens. Numbers of nodules per root system were high in plants treated with Rhizobium sp. but foliar spray of ZnO NPs had adverse effect on nodulation. Inoculation of plants with test pathogens also reduced nodulation. Spray of ZnO NPs to plants reduced galling, nematode multiplication, wilt, blight and leaf spot disease severity indices.

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Abstract

Objectives: Database review to analyse age and sex differences in complication and conversion rates and influence on return to normal daily activities and work after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: 658 patients had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for proven gallstones between 9/4/2001 and 15/2/2006 under the care of one surgeon (F. H.) at Benenden hospital, Kent, UK. Results: We had a 65.5% response rate with 431 replies at a mean follow up of 22.4 months (2.3–52.8). There was a male to female ratio of 5:23 with a mean age of 54.2 years (22–83). Using linear regression we found no significant correlation with operative time and variables of age and sex (df = 2, 251, R 2 = 0.03, F = 0.574, p < 0.564). No significant correlation with number of complications and age or sex (df = 2, 334, R 2 = 0.004, F = 1.615, p < 0.200). Age (Exp(B) = 1.040, p < 0.51) and sex (Exp(B) = 0.863, p < 0.855) had no effect on conversion. No difference was found in relation to age and sex with return to normal daily activities (df = 2, 307, F = 0.904, p < 0.406). Age was a non-significant predictor of return to work (Beta = 0.040, p < 0.572) however men return to work significantly sooner (Beta = 0.191, p < 0.007). Conclusions: Operative time, number of complications, conversion to open and return to normal daily activities may not be affected by age or sex of patients. Hospital stay may be longer in older patients. Men appear to return to work sooner. Further analysis with validated questionnaires are required.

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Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of half ripe and full ripe fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Lucknow-49 by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE) with diethyl ether as extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-MS. Acetic, butyric and hexanoic acids were the predominant acids, trans-2-hexenal and hexanal the predominant aldehydes and ethyl propanoate, methyl butyrate, ethyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, hexyl acetate, methyl benzoate, methyl octanoate, ethyl benzoate, phenylpropyl acetate and cinnamyl acetate, the esters responsible for the characteristic guava flavour were also present. The amount of total volatile substances was about 20% higher in full ripe fruits. The concentration of acids and most esters increased and that of C6 aldehydes decreased during ripening. The enzyme analysis showed that the polygalacturonase (PG) activity was lower in the ripe fruit, than in the half ripe one, while the β -galactosidase activity was not influenced by maturity stage. The surface and the cell walls of full ripe guava became wrinkled, and parenchyma cells were empty (SEM).

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Colour (L*, a*, b*, h o and chroma), β-galactosidase, polygalacturonase (PG) activity, pectin content, ultrastructure and volatile compounds were determined, in mature green and in yellow ber fruits ( Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk. cv. Umran).The L* did not, but a*, b* and h o significantly differed between mature green and yellow ber fruit. The pectin content and its solubilization (soluble pectin and neutral sugars), the activity of PG was higher in yellow ber fruits and in the outer part of fruits. Activity of β-galactosidase was higher in mature green ber fruits. The cell walls of mature green fruits were usually homogeneous, the density of the middle lamellae decreased in yellow bers, and at the same time, the structure of chloroplastids disintegrated. The aroma of yellow ber is characterized by the presence of even carbon number of ethyl esters from C4 to C14.

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