Authors:D. Lima, J. Coelho, A. Pereira, M. Silvestre and D. Nelson
With a view to increasing the industrial use of bovine blood globin, the extraction of the globin fraction was achieved using the acidified acetone method. Spectrophotometric analysis of the globin and the extracted heme group was performed utilizing the Soret band. The influence of the type of final processing of the globins (freeze drying, gel) on the solubility, the emulsification capacity, the emulsifying activity index and the stability of the emulsion was studied at pH 5, 6 and 7. No behavioural differences between freeze-dried and gel globin forms were observed. The best performance for most of the functional properties was achieved at pH 5.0 for the globin obtained by this method.
Authors:H.A. Morais, L.M. De Marco, M.C. Oliveira and M.P.C. Silvestre
Hydrolytic parameters were tested to prepare casein hydrolysates with high oligopeptide content for dietetic purpose, using papain. Employing a temperature of 37 °C and an E:S ratio of 2% was the most economical condition for large-scale manufacture. The encapsulation in liposomes was used for masking the bitterness, and was also able to reduce the hydrophobicity as well as to keep the chemical stability during 60 days of storage. The UV spectrometry with second derivative transformation was used to measure the encapsulation rate, which changed from 56% to 62%. The size distribution of vesicles was in the range of 500 to 1000 nm.
Authors:M. M. D. Ginja, A. J. A. Ferreira, M. Silvestre, J. M. Gonzalo-Orden and M. P. Llorens-Pena
Repeatability and reproducibility of Distraction Index (DI) measurements in the PennHIP method were evaluated in 100 dogs. The PennHIP distraction views sent to the PennHIP Analysis Center (PAC) were duplicated, digitalised, and identified with a code, and an adequate computer software was used for DI measurements. One examiner performed two DI measurement sessions, evaluating individually 200 hip joints. The scoring repeatability and reproducibility were estimated calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) between the two DI measurement sessions and between the second DI measurement session and the DI in PAC reports, respectively. The ICC for repeatability was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96 to 0.98], and the ICC for reproducibility was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93 to 0.96). The results suggest that the DI measurement method described is repeatable and can reproduce the PAC reports with confidence. Distraction indices measured in different PennHIP studies, using this DI measurement method and performed by trained researchers, can be considered interchangeable.
Authors:Ana Cristina Silvestre-Ferreira, Mário Cotovio, Mário Maia, Felisbina Queiroga, M João Pires and Aura Colaço
The Lusitano horse is an autochthonous Portuguese breed with a growing worldwide expansion. Our objective was to establish reference intervals for haematological parameters using the haematological cell counter LaserCyte (IDEXX). For this purpose, blood samples from 100 healthy adult horses (13 females and 87 males, ranging from 3 to 25 years of age) were analysed. The reference intervals were estimated following the ASVCP guidelines with the Reference Value Advisor software. The obtained reference intervals were 6.4–10.1 × 1012/L for red blood cells, 30.6–45.1% for haematocrit, 11.6–17.1 g/dL for haemoglobin, 42.8–53.2 fL for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), 15.5–20.8 pg for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), 33.7–39.4 g/dL for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, 17.8–20.3% for red cell distribution width (RDW), 4.5–10.1 × 109/L for white blood cells, 2.2–6.0 × 109/L for neutrophils, 0.9–4.9 × 109/L for lymphocytes, 0.2–0.5 × 109/L for monocytes, 0.1–0.6 × 109/L for eosinophils, 0.0–0.1 × 109/L for basophils, 78.5–172.2 K/mL for platelets, 4.3–9.4 fL for mean platelet volume, 18.8–24.2% for platelet distribution width, and 0.06–0.12% for plateletcrit. LaserCyte equine reference intervals are transferable to the Lusitano horse for 18 of the 22 analytes studied. Regarding age, significant statistical differences were observed for MCV, RDW, neutrophils and lymphocytes between the mean values of young (3–6 years old), middle-aged (7–14 years old) and old (< 15 years old) age groups. MCH means were statistically significantly different between the three age groups. The haematological reference intervals established in this study might represent a valuable and applicable tool for haematological assessment of adult Lusitano horses, providing useful information that helps clinicians to interpret clinical data.