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  • Author or Editor: M. Sipos x
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In our study we have proven that Bass model depicting the market spread of different products is suitable also for the study and forecast of mineral water consumption. Years in the near future can be predicted trustworthily. Nevertheless, calculation of the optimal parameters is expedient to be executed after every year of consumption data. Our data are belonging from the years of exponent consumption growth (1979–2007), that is to say, from the time before saturation of market, thus one can apply both Bass model and exponent model. We made forecasts for the current forthcoming years by the Bass model.

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Our study involved assessing new Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars (‘Artemisz’, ‘Hesztia’, ‘Rosmerta’, and ‘Cordelia’) and two commercial cultivars (‘Watson Jonathan’ and ‘Prima’). The samples were evaluated by a trained assessor panel applying computer supported profile analysis with 20 descriptive sensory parameters (using ProfiSens sensory assessment software). Beside the profiles of each cultivar we also showed the significant differences between the cultivars (LSD95%, LSD99%). The nutritional values were analysed using the MANOVA statistical method, the effects of significant factors on measured values were evaluated by using Tukey (P=0.05) post-hoc test, and we determined the homogeneous and heterogeneous groups based on that. Our study showed that PCA bi-plots containing sensory and instrumental value loadings together with the scores of apple cultivars make the complex relationships of each cultivar available for comparison. The results clearly showed that the intensity of the sour taste is inversely proportional to the carbohydrate-acid ratio determined by measurements. The flesh firmness and pectin content values obtained by instrumental measurements were found to be strongly correlated sensory parameters on crispness, texture, and ripeness. PCA plots proved to be very useful in demonstrating the parallelisms between instrumental-instrumental (TPC/FRAP) and sensory-sensory (shade/colour) parameter pairs, too. Our aggregated results show that the new Hungarian resistant apple cultivars have almost as good as or even better nutritional values than ‘Prima’ and ‘Jonathan’ (the latter dominated the Hungarian apple production for several decades). The new multi-resistant cultivars renew the range of apple cultivars available on the market, and they introduce new flavours to consumers.

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This paper explores correlations between macrophyte occurrence and environmental characteristics recorded in a more than 350 rkm long segment of the main Danube channel in Hungary. The selected river section belongs entirely to the lowland part of the Middle Danube, but it is separated into the mostly gravelly upper and the sandy lower river sections. Two markedly different groups of macrophytes correlated with this separation; the mostly perennial, rooting species (Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus, P. nodosus, P. pectinatus, P. perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris) preferred the gravelly habitats, while the non-rooting, free-floating macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor, Salvinia natans and Spirodela polyrhiza) occurred mainly in the sandy stretches. Based on current velocity and Secchi transparency, these stretches seemed to provide “more lotic” and “rather lentic” habitats. Data evaluation also revealed that the closer are the river stretches to a water course discharging upstream the more free-floating aquatic plants occur in the main Danube channel.

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The effects of genotypes, nutrient and water supply on the dry matter production and potassium uptake dynamics of maize (Zea mays L.) were studied on chernozem soil in the Debrecen-Látókép long-term field experiment (Eastern Hungary).According to the experimental results and calculations it can be concluded that — in addition to the previously used and considered soil and plant nutrient contents — the calculation of the plant-extracted nutrient amount (depending on the applied hybrid, NPK nutrient levels and water supply) is suggested to enable the characterization of the growth and nutrient demand dynamics of maize genotypes. This parameter gives information not only about the available nutrient amount at a given sampling time, but about the supply level of plants up to the sampling time as well. For the proper characterization of the mentioned dynamics of maize plants authors suggest to take the following sampling times into consideration: the intensive vegetative growth period, the switch between the vegetative and generative growth phases (silking), and the grain filling phase.

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Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is supposed to play an integral role in the organization of colonic repair mechanisms. Majority of the GALT is composed of isolated and aggregated lymphoid follicles distributed throughout the intestines. These lymphoid follicles, including Peyer’s patches of the small, and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) of both the small and large intestines, are composed of a specialised follicle associated epithelium overlying a subepithelial dome containing numerous dendritic cells, macrophages, T and B cells. Within inflammatory conditions the number, the diameter and the density of ILFs are increasing. Follicles are involved not just in immune surveillance, but their presence is also indispensable for normal colonic mucosal regeneration. Regarding mucosal repair the relation of ILFs to bone marrow derived stem cells, follicular dendritic cells, subepithelial myofibroblasts and crypt formations, and the putative organizer role of ILFs have not been clarified yet.

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The present study investigated how sighted and blind sensory assessors evaluated the quality of various apple varieties: Regal Prince (Gala Must), Jonagold Schneica (Jonica), Watson Jonathan, Golden Reinders and Generos. A total of 80 sighted and 12 blind people participated in the study, in three groups (sighted people without blindfolds, sighted people with blindfolds, blind people). The preference of sensory attributes (size, shape, colour, texture, taste and odour) was evaluated on a six-category scale. The data were analysed using single-factor (ANOVA, LSD95%, 99%) and multi-factor (Cluster analysis, ANOVA, LSD95%, 99%) evaluation. The results showed that blind and sighted assessors made similar judgements on external attributes perceptible by touch (size, shape), but differed in their evaluation of certain quality factors (flavour, taste), resulting in opponent patterns of preference on some apple varieties (Generos, Jonagold Schneica). A further conclusion of the experiment is that there was less deviation between the judgements of sighted assessors when they saw the apples than when they were blindfolded. The background of this phenomenon might be explained by the uncertainty and disturbed perception, which lead to inconsistent judgements.

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The passage of highly specialized germ cells to future generations is essential for the maintenance of species. To date, conventional genetic screens identified relatively few genes that are involved in germ cell development. We aimed to identify germ line specific genes on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster by the application of a new method: the dual-tagging gene-trap system (GT). A modified version of the gene-trap element was used in our experiments and the resulting insertional mutants were screened for grandchild-less phenotype with the help of the attached-X system and a sensitized genetic background developed in our laboratory. Among the 800 insertions mapped to the X chromosome 33 new mutations were identified that exhibited grandchild-less phenotype, 6 gave visible phenotype and 12 were conditional lethal. The cloning of a selected group of the 33 lines showing grandchild-less pheno-type confirmed that we have identified new candidates for genes involved in germ cell development. One of them named pebbled ( peb ) is discussed in details in this paper. Finally, we also describe a novel automatic selection system developed in our laboratory which enables the extension of the GT mutagenesis to the autosomes.

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Despite recent evidence of the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption in arteriosclerosis prevention, the neurotoxic effects of alcohol abuse are well known. Our hypothesis was that uncontrolled alcohol consumption may cause cerebrovascular damage detectable by rheoencepholography (REG), a noninvasive bio-impedance technique for estimating cerebral blood flow. Test subjects were 48 alcoholic patients in Hungary; the control group consisted of 12 drug-addicted and depressed patients in Hungary and 13 healthy male subjects in the United States. Additional subgroups were formed according to smoking habits and average daily alcohol dose. REG was measured by a computer-based system, “Cerberus”; REG anacrotic time above 180 ms was considered pathological. ANOVA showed that daily alcohol consumption and smoking were significantly higher in alcoholics than in drug-addicted and depressed patients. Twelve alcoholics showed a pathological REG anacrotic time. Longer REG anacrotic time was correlated with higher daily alcohol consumption. In the alcoholic group, the steeper regression line of REG slope reflected the pathological impact of alcohol abuse. The healthy control sample showed a nearly identical slope for both REG and age. The correlation of increased REG anacrotic time and daily alcohol consumption supports the hypothesis that REG detects accelerated cerebrovascular aging (arteriosclerosis) in alcoholic subjects.

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One of the main obstacles in freshwater aquaculture is the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), the causative agent of white spot disease. The use of immunostimulants as feed additives may be a promising approach to control Ich infection. In the present study, we tested the prophylactic effect of orally administered β-1,3/1,6-glucan and propolis extract E50 against Ich infection in common carp. In total, 122 fish were separated into three experimental groups fed with a control, 3% β-glucan and 1% propolis diet for 40 consecutive days, respectively. On day 40, 16 fish per group were individually exposed to Ich theronts and the number of trophonts was counted 5 days post exposure. Relative gene expression of interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β) in common carp liver was examined by qPCR. Compared to control, the mean infection intensity was lower in the β-glucan- and propolis-fed groups; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The relative expression of IL-1-β significantly decreased in the propolis-fed group at day 10. In the β-glucan-fed group, a significant IL-1-β decrease was detected at day 15 compared to control. Although the Ich infection intensity was slightly decreased in both treated groups, and IL-1-β was moderately down-regulated in the liver of common carp, our results suggest that the applied feeding regime is insufficient to prevent Ich outbreaks in common carp.

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