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  • Author or Editor: M. Subchev x
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Monitoring the seasonal flights of the yellow alfalfa geometrid, Isturgia arenacearia (Denis and Schiffermuller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), was made using home made sticky delta traps baited with pheromone caps purchased from “CSALOMON®” (Plant Protection Institute, Hungary, Budapest). The monitoring was conducted in alfalfa fields in Plovdiv, Pazardjik and Sofia regions in Bulgaria during 2007–2009. The flight of I. arenacearia at the investigated sites started during April and lasted until the end of August — middle of September. Two relatively well-defined peaks indicating two generations were recorded in Sofia region. Thus the flight period of the pest was defined more accurately than previously recorded and proved to be significantly longer than was known for this country. Pheromone baits, products of “CSALOMON®” (Plant Protection Institute, Hungary, Budapest), are potent and very species specific tool for detecting the presence of, and seasonal monitoring of I. arenacearia .

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Monitoring the seasonal flights of the Latticed heath, Chiasmia clathrata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), was carried out using home made sticky delta traps baited with pheromone caps purchased from CSALOMON® (Plant Protection Institute, Hungary, Budapest). The monitoring was conducted in alfalfa fields in Pazardzhik and Sofia regions in Bulgaria during 2007–2009. The flight of C. clathrata at the investigated sites started at the very beginning of April and lasted until the middle-end of September. Three relatively well-defined peaks, indicating three generations, were recorded in Sofia region. Thus, the flight period and the flight of the separate generations of the pest were defined more accurately than it has been reported earlier. Pheromone baits, products of CSALOMON ® are potent and species specific tools for detecting the presence and seasonal monitoring of C. clathrata.

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The Lucerne longicorn, Plagionotus (Echinocerus) floralis (Pallas) is a pest on alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and several other species in the area of its distribution. Seasonal flight activity of adults of this species was studied for first time by CSALOMON® ARb3z fluorescent yellow traps with a floral attractant in alfalfa fields at three sites located in Tracian Lowland (Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and Sofia Basin (Sofia) zoogeographical regions of Bulgaria. At all three sites P. (Echinocerus) floralis beetles were caught in relatively large numbers. Flight activity of the pest occurs over a period of about two months from the end of May (in Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and middle of June (in Sofia) until the end of July. In Sofia (2007), the abundance of the pest in an old (5-year-old) alfalfa was significantly higher than in a young (1-year-old) alfalfa. In the untreated fields, air temperature and air humidity had no effect on beetle captures. Our investigations showed that yellow fluorescent VARb3z traps baited with floral lure can be used successfully for detection and seasonal monitoring of P. (Echinocerus) floralis . Data obtained by monitoring of the seasonal activity of adults using baited traps can be useful for forecasting and controlling outbreaks of the pest.

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Two-year seasonal monitoring of the flight of Phthorimaea operculella by means of pheromone traps was organized at four sites in three districts in Bulgaria: Sofia, Kyustendil and Plovdiv. Comparison between sticky traps and dry funnel traps has shown that sticky traps were much more effective in capturing of males of this pest than the dry ones. The results of our investigations showed that the pest could appear in the field as early as the end of March and also intensive flight could be observed up to the end of November. Single catches were registered even in January. However, because of overlapping of the generations, their number and periods of moth emergence was not possible to be distinguished by the catches in pheromone traps. Analyses of climatic data (mean air temperature and mean rainfall) indicated that none of the climatic variables investigated strongly affected P. operculella trap catches.

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Three-years monitoring (1996 –1998)of the leafminer moth Leucoptera scitella Zell was organi- zed in the apple orchard of the Fruit-Growing Institute,Plovdiv,Bulgaria.Sex pheromone traps with Hunga- rian caps (Plant Protection Institute,Hungarian Academy of Sciences)were used for first time in this country. As a result,three full generation of the pests were established in all three years and a partial one in 1996 and 1998.The beginning and the end of the first generation were also well defined by the catches in the pheromone traps.However,an overlap of the second and the third on the one hand and the third and the fourth on the other,was observed in all three years.The time of the first catches from the first generation varied from April 9 to April 22.The second and third generation began in the second decade of June and second decade of July,respectively.Chemical treatments seem to have no significant effect on the catches in the pheromone traps.

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There was no significant difference in the mean catch of Tropinota squalida Scop. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) in white or blue traps with the floral bait consisting of ( E )-cinnamyl alcohol plus ( E )-anethol (which is the previously optimized floral bait for the closely related scarab Epicometis hirta Poda). Therefore we concluded that both scarabs can be trapped efficiently with the same trap, which could be advantageous from the practical point of view. In seasonal monitoring trials conducted at 8 sites in Europe using blue traps with the floral bait, adult beetles of both T. squalida and E. hirta were successfully detected and their flight pattern was clearly established. At the site in Sicily (Italy) only T. squalida was present, while in Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary only E. hirta was captured. At a site near Rome (Italy) both scarabs were caught.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: M. Subchev, T. Toshova, R. Andreev, V. Petrova, V. Maneva, T. Spasova, N. Marinova, P. Minkov and D. Velchev

Field investigations with CSALOMON® floral-chemical baited color traps for scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidoidaea) were organized in eight sites in different regions in Bulgaria during 2009–2010. As a result data about distribution and seasonal flight were obtained for the target species Cetonia aurata L. and Protaetia cuprea (Fabricius) and two other non-target species, Valgus hemipterus L. and Blitopertha lineolata (Fischer von Waldheim). Catches of C. aurata were recorded in all of the sites where observations were organized but the number of the beetles caught was relatively low. The earliest catches of this pest were registered in the middle-end of April and the latest ones in early August. Single catches of P. cuprea, not allowing doing conclusions about seasonal flight for this species, were recorded only in Dryanovo, Knezha, Plovdiv and Troyan. Catches of V. hemipterus, were registered in all of the sites with the exception of Petrich. The flight period of this species, as established by catches in the traps, was middle-end of April — early June. Significant number of B. lineolata was caught in Dryanovo in 2009 and single catches in Plovdiv in 2009 and Kyustendil in 2009 and 2010. The earliest catches for the two years in Dryanovo were registered in the middle-end of May and the latest ones in the middle of June. This is the first report about floral-chemical attractant for this species. For all four species the relative catches in traps for C. aurata/P. cuprea, Tropinota (Epicometis) hirta (Poda) and Oxythyrea funesta (Poda), operating simultaneously in the investigated sites, were presented and analyzed.

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