The formation of125IO3– ions in the course of labeling proteins with125I by the use of the Chloramine-T method has been investigated. It was demonstrated that one of the components of the labeling reaction mixture is125IO3–. The identification of radio-iodate ions was performed by the use of paper electrophoresis.
In field screening tests conducted on selected pest scarabaeids in Hungary, Epicometis (Tropinota) hirta (subfamily Cetoniinae) was attracted to traps baited with either cinnamyl alcohol or trans-anethol. In some tests attraction was also detected to phenethyl alcohol or cinnamyl acetate. In other tests, adults of Cetonia aurata aurata and Oxythyrea funesta (subfamily Cetoniinae) also were attracted to trans-anethol, while the ternary mixture of phenethyl propionate, eugenol and geraniol attracted Potosia cuprea (subfamily Cetoniinae). Some attraction of Valgus hemipterus (subfamily Valginae) to cinnamyl alcohol also was observed. All of the above species are pests of more or less economic importance in Hungary. The attractant chemicals discovered in the present study will form a starting point for the development of effective attractants for the respective pest scarab species.
The Lucerne longicorn,
Plagionotus (Echinocerus) floralis
(Pallas) is a pest on alfalfa,
L. and several other species in the area of its distribution. Seasonal flight activity of adults of this species was studied for first time by CSALOMON® ARb3z fluorescent yellow traps with a floral attractant in alfalfa fields at three sites located in Tracian Lowland (Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and Sofia Basin (Sofia) zoogeographical regions of Bulgaria. At all three sites
P. (Echinocerus) floralis
beetles were caught in relatively large numbers. Flight activity of the pest occurs over a period of about two months from the end of May (in Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and middle of June (in Sofia) until the end of July. In Sofia (2007), the abundance of the pest in an old (5-year-old) alfalfa was significantly higher than in a young (1-year-old) alfalfa. In the untreated fields, air temperature and air humidity had no effect on beetle captures. Our investigations showed that yellow fluorescent VARb3z traps baited with floral lure can be used successfully for detection and seasonal monitoring of
P. (Echinocerus) floralis
. Data obtained by monitoring of the seasonal activity of adults using baited traps can be useful for forecasting and controlling outbreaks of the pest.
Sticky “cloak” traps (CSALOMON® PAL) baited with the synthetic pheromone racemic 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane were most efficient among the trap designs tested for catching male olive fly
Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae
Gmelin (Diptera, Tephritidae) in field tests in Croatia. Colour cues did not influence male catches. Consequently transparent sticky “cloak” traps baited with pheromone appear to be the best choice for detection and monitoring of males of the olive fly in Croatia. Female flies did not respond to the pheromone, however, were weakly attracted to the visual cues of yellow and fluorescent yellow.
The aim of dogrose breeding for fruit purposes is to select genotypes suitable for cultivation and to produce new genotypes by crossing. Physical and chemical analyses, prospective genotypes have been developed from
R. corymbifera, R. rubiginosa
varieties.In the course of the investigations, the highest vitamin C content was found in the hips of
. The glucose and fructose contents ranged from 9.57–13.36 g/100 g, averaged over several years. The amounts of these two carbohydrates were equal, or in some taxa (e.g.
R. corymbifera, R. canina
Sz3) the fructose content was higher.The glucose, fructose and vitamin C contents changed at different rates in each taxon during ripening. The results showed that the fructose content reached its peak a week earlier than the glucose content. The vitamin C content of morphological varieties of
did not change substantially during ripening.
Information about children’s daily physical activity in Eastern-Europe is essential because of the increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity. Sixty-three children (age=11.16 ± 1.10 years; 33 boys and 30 girls) from two public elementary schools had their physical activity objectively measured using uni-axial accelerometer every 5 seconds for five consecutive days (3 weekdays, 2 weekend days). After data cleaning, 10 children were excluded from database. There were no significant differences in boys’ and girls’ BMI (17.6±2.2 vs. 17.1±2.4) and BF% (18.0±5.2 vs. 19.4±5.0). Children engaged in more sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity and had higher counts per minute during weekdays compared to weekend days. There were no sex differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity (87.6±22.4 vs. 93.5±20.6 min and 53.6±21.3 vs. 59.4±22.0 min) during weekday and weekend days. Data indicated that 96% of the girls and 92% of the boys met the international physical activity guideline for children of 60 minutes of MVPA, on weekdays.
In field trapping tests conducted in Hungary large numbers of Pyralis costalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a secondary pest, were attracted to traps baited with iso-amyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) and acetic acid. The same bait attracted lower numbers of P. farinalis L., a well-known stored product pest. In both spp. the capture of the two-component blend was significantly higher than the catch in traps with the single components. In tests conducted in a country mill, the blend of the above two compounds proved to be attractive towards Anagasta kuehniella Zell. and Plodia interpunctella Hbn. (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), both important pests of stored products worldwide. The majority of captured insects were females. The optimal ratio for attracting A. kuehniella was 1:1 to 1:10 iso-amyl alcohol:acetic acid. The related iso-amyl acetate was inactive. The addition of iso-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-1-propanol) did not influence activity of the iso-amyl alcohol / acetic acid blend. Polyethylene dispensers with 0.2 ml of the blend started to loose activity only after 3 weeks of field exposure. Application possibilities of the newly discovered attractant are discussed.
Remarkable differences have been found in host-plant related chemical communication between
Redtenbacher (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In preliminary screenings sizeable catches of
were recorded in traps baited with either 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, or a quternary mixture of 2-butenyl-, phenethyl-, 3-butenyl-and butyl isothiocyanates. Later studies revealed that
responded better to the above isothiocyanate mixture, than to allyl isothiocyanate, while
catches were always greater in allyl isothiocyanate baited traps. Of the four isothiocyanates in the mixture, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate may predominantly be responsible for attractivity of the mixture towards
.As such differences in isothiocyanate preference may occur also in other flea beetle species, for practical applications more efficient, selective and sensitive baits and traps may be developed in the future based on improved knowledge of the chemical communication of flea beetles and through optimal combination of effective isothiocyanate compounds. Both
rank among the most important pest flea beetles in Europe.
Hedya nubiferana (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a polyphagous pest damaging apple, pear, peach, plum and other related fruits. In tests conducted in Hungary, traps baited with a female-targeted lure [ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) + acetic acid; abbreviated later as PE+AA] caught comparable number of moths as pheromone baited traps. Traps with PE+AA lures caught (females and males together) on an average 30% of the catch in traps baited with the synthetic green budworm moth sex pheromone (catching all males). This suggested that the PE+AA lure had a trapping performance comparable with that of pheromone traps, which latter are in practical use by farmers today. The seasonal flight patterns recorded with the PE+AA baited traps were similar to those with the sex pheromone baited ones, with respect to detection of beginning of flight and quantitative trends of catches during the flight. Consequently, the PE+AA lure shows potential for future practical applications as a female-targeted lure for H. nubiferana.