Arsenic content in drinking water and in scalp hair of the arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) to determine the contribution of drinking water to body burden and health risks. Around 61% of the water analyzed from tube-wells has arsenic content above 0.05 mg/l and about 13% have arsenic content above 0.01 mg/l. The mean concentration of arsenic in contaminated water is about 0.26 mg/l with the maximum level of 0.83 mg/l. The contaminated water thus contributes a significant amount to the arsenic budget in humans in Bangladesh and consequently, to their health hazards. The average concentration of arsenic in hair of a patient group drinking contaminated water is 14.1 mg/kg where the normal levels are <3.0 mg/kg. The distribution of arsenic in water and in hair is compared and discussed with the data reported in the literature. The daily dietary intake value of arsenic by the adult population in Bangladesh is estimated and assessed signifying health effects.
Guiacol, i.e. o-hydroxyanisole, gives a distinct color reaction with U(VI) suitable for spectrophotometric determination of the metal. The complex formed in the reaction has an absorption maximum at 352 nm. Optimum pH for the color development ranges from 6.5 to 8.5. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the method were found to be 3.75×103 l·mol–1·cm–1 and 0.063 g·cm–2, respectively. Many anions and cations do not interfere up to 100 ppm. The method has been made very specific by selective extraction of U(VI) with TBP from a mixture of different cations and anions in the presence of 60% NH4NO3 as salting out agent followed by developing the color in the non-aqueous phase by adding quaiacol in methanol at pH 6.5 to 8.5 An amount as low as 30 g of uranium (VI) per 10 ml of the solution could be satisfactorily determined with an RSD of ±2.0%. The method was applied to rock samples after U(VI) had been extracted from a sample solution into 25% TBP in hexane. Results obtained by the new method compare very well with those of conventional fluorimetric and radiometric assays. The features of the method include excellent precision, rapidity, good selectivity, and ease of performance.
Some results are obtained for non-compact cases in topological vector spaces for the existence problem of solutions for some
set-valued variational inequalities with quasi-monotone and lower hemi-continuous operators, and with quasi-semi-monotone
and upper hemi-continuous operators. Some applications are given in non-reflexive Banach spaces for these existence problems
of solutions and for perturbation problems for these set-valued variational inequalities with quasi-monotone and quasi-semi-monotone
An investigation on the level of some minor and trace elements in some varieties of meat (beef, mutton and chicken) consumed in Bangladesh is reported. In this study, protoninduced X-ray emission (PIXE) and radioisotope-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used for analytical measurements. In PIXE measurements, the samples were exposed to the proton beam in air as 1 mm thick pellets and irradiated with 2.0 MeV protons having the beam intensity of 30 nA for characteristic X-ray excitation, whereas in XRF, the samples were excited for 5000 seconds with a 10 mCi109Cd annular X-ray source. The elemental concentrations of Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were determined in the samples by comparison with X-ray yield curves constructed from IAEA and NBS standard reference materials. The significance of the results is dicussed in relation to human health and diseases.
Authors:S. Biswas, M. Abdullah, S. Akhter, S. Tarafdar, M. Khaliquzzaman and A. Khan
The method of proton particle-induced X-ray emission (proton PIXE) has been employed to study the trace element composition of human fingernails. The samples were colleted from 51 subjects randomly selected from a working community of about 500 adults and they were analyzed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellets and irradiated with 2 MeV protons having 20 nA beam intensity. For 40 C irradiations, the concentration of fourteen elements, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb, were measured by comparison with a calibration obtained from the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM 1571). Some anomalous cases have been revealed from this study and they are attributed to environmental factors. The frequency distributions of the elements are presented and the results compared with available data.
Authors:A. Khan, S. Tarafdar, M. Ali, S. Biswas, S. Akhter, D. Saha, A. Islam, M. Billah, D. Hadi and F. Maroof
An investigation is conducted on the status of trace and minor elements in some foodstuffs (cereals, vegetables, milk, egg and fish), commonly consumed in Bangladesh, using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and radioisotope-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. In PIXE measurements, the samples were irradiated in air with 2.0 MeV (energy on the target) protons having the beam intensity of 30 nA for characteristic X-ray excitation, while in XRF analysis, the samples were excited for 5000 seconds with a 10 mCi Cd-109 annular X-ray source. The elemental concentration of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, and Pb were determined in the samples by comparison with X-ray yield curves constructed from IAEA and NBS standard reference materials. The validity of the analytical procedures (PIXE and XRF) followed in this study has been confirmed by comparative measurements of Cu, Zn and Mn in some varieties of rice with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results indicate that none of the food regimes investigated here is burdened with heavy metals beyond permissible limits except five species of vegetables with chromium having the range of 0.99–3.59 mg/kg compared to the literature value of 0.0–0.36 mg/kg (dry weight basis). An average value of 0.2 mg/kg of arsenic was observed both in IRRI (n=16) and local Aman (n=12) varieties of rice and only one hen egg contained 1.7 mg/kg of lead in yolk. The zinc content in some marine fish from Bay of Bengal was reported to be 5.4–19.5 mg/kg, whereas in the present study of sweet-water fish, the level is found to be 15.2–62.1 mg/kg (fresh weight basis) for five species. In human milk, both Cu (0.12–0.25 mg/l, n=8) and Zn (0.28–1.80 mg/l, n=8) levels appear to be almost half the literature values (n=25). On the other hand formula milk has higher values of Cu (0.32–1.63 mg/kg, n=16) and Zn (5.16–19.8 mg/kg, n=16).