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Abstract  

Isotopic analysis of243Cm and244Cm has been tried by using a newly developed internal conversion electron spectrometer with high energy resolution. As a result, it was demonstrated that the above isotopes can be determined individually, accurately and precisely, and that the isotopic ratio is also possible to determined sensitively by measuring only the ratio of gross counting rate of internal conversion electrons to that of alpha-rays.

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Abstract  

In order to demonstrate the usefulness of alpha-particle activation analysis, simultaneous determination of P, Cl, K and Ca in commercially available control serums has been studied fundamentally. After thick target yield curves of radionuclides produced from the element to be determined were measured as a function of alpha energy together with those of the interferences, an optimum working standard for the present experiments was provided by applying the internal standard method to a human serum under the most suitable bombardment conditions. Then, the concentrations of the above four elements in several control serums were determined efficiently and reasonably by ordinary alpha-particle activation analysis.

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Abstract  

As a new method, stable-isotope dilution activation analysis has been developed. When an element consists of at least two stable isotopes which are converted easily to the radioactive nuclides through nuclear reactions, the total amount of the element (xg) can be determined by irradiating simultaneously the duplicated sample containing small amounts of either enriched isotope (y g), and by using the following equation.

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{x = y\left( {{M \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {M {M*}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {M*}}} \right)\left[ {\left( {{{R*} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{R*} R}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} R}} \right)\left( {{{\theta _2^* } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\theta _2^* } {\theta _2 }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\theta _2 }}} \right) - \left( {{{\theta _1^* } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\theta _1^* } {\theta _1 }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\theta _1 }}} \right)} \right]} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{x = y\left( {{M \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {M {M*}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {M*}}} \right)\left[ {\left( {{{R*} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{R*} R}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} R}} \right)\left( {{{\theta _2^* } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\theta _2^* } {\theta _2 }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\theta _2 }}} \right) - \left( {{{\theta _1^* } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\theta _1^* } {\theta _1 }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\theta _1 }}} \right)} \right]} {\left[ {1 - \left( {{{R*} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{R*} R}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} R}} \right)} \right]}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\left[ {1 - \left( {{{R*} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{R*} R}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} R}} \right)} \right]}}$$ \end{document}
Where M and M* are atomic weights of the element to be determined and the enriched isotope used as a spike,θ 1 andθ 2 are natural abundances of two stable isotopes in the element,θ 1 * andθ 2 * are isotopic compositions of the above isotopes in the enriched isotope, and R and R* are counting ratios of gamma-rays emitted by two radionuclides produced in the sample and the isotopic mixture. Neither calibration standard nor correction of irradiation conditions are necessary for this method. Usefulness of the present method was verified by photon activations of Ca, Zn and Ce using isotopically enriched48ca,68Zn and142Ce.

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Abstract  

A thermal resistive window flow counter available for hard beta-emitters in radio gaschromatography effluents was developed. The plateau region of the counter showed more than 150 volts long even if the counter was operated at temperature up to 200°C. The radio gas-chromatograms for real samples containing high boiling compounds showed high resolution and shapper peaks.

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Abstract  

A new internal standard method for activation analysis has been developed. This method is characterized by that a suitable element present originally in the sample is used as an internal standard and the comparative standard is prepared by applying the standard addition method to the duplicated sample. When a sample under examination contains Wag of trace element A to be determined together with a known amount of element B which is usable as an internal standard, and when the comparative standard is prepared by adding W a * g of accurately known small amount of the element A to the duplicated sample, even if the sample and comparative standard are irradiated separately by particles with different fluxes, Wa can be determined, easily by using the following equation: Wa=W a * /[(A R * /AR)-1] Where AR and A R * are counting ratios of gamma-rays emitted by two radioactive nuclides produced from the element A and B in the sample and comparative standard, respectively. Neither correction of the inhomogeneities of flux between the sample and comparative standard, nor that of, the self-shielding effects are necessary for the present method. The usefulness of the method was examined through the determination of Co, Ni, Rb and Sr in pepperbush by means of photon activation, and the precision and accuracy of the method were proved to be valid.

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Abstract  

A method has been developed where the element to be determined in the sample consists of at least two stable isotopes, which are easily converted to radionuclides through particular nuclear reactions. The sample is previously processed by adding a known quantity of an enriched isotope of the element, while the comparative reference is prepared by taking an arbitrary amount of the natural element under investigation. The usefulness of the method was verified by photon activation analysis of strontium in standard reference materials of tomato and citrus leaves, using isotopically enriched86Sr as a spike, and the accurary and precision of the method were proved to be valid.

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Abstract  

A more exact and reliable irradiation system for the photon activation analysis by the use of high power electron linear accelerator was originally designed and tested. Applications of a simple beam position monitor and a thin beryllium oxide ceramic disk in this system made possible to control the beam position on the center axis of sample during irradiation, and also permitted the reproducible irradiations in situ.

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Abstract  

In order to study effective applications of the photon activation analysis using the internal standard method, determinations of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Pb in two marine sediments as environmental materials have been examined by the use of a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards to check the roles with each other. As a result, it was demonstrated that accurate and precise determinations of the above 15 elements were achieved efficiently and favourably.

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Abstract  

Determination of phosphorus in low-alloy steels by alpha-particle activation analysis has been studied in detail. After thick target yield curves of main interferences produced from the sample were measured as a function of alpha energy, the working standard for the present experiments was provided by applying the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method under the most suitable bombarding conditions. Using the above working standard, it was demonstrated that the concentration of phosphorus in several low-alloy steels can be determined accurately and precisely by ordinary alphaparticle activation analysis.

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Abstract  

In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determination of several selected elements, such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel has been examined by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the above determination, constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements can be determined accurately and precisely.

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