A local stability analysis is made in two-sex two-locus frequency-dependent selection models in order to precise the definition for an ESS that has to be used for such models. Uninvadability of fixation states and stability of polymor- phic equilibria are studied. It is shown that Cressman's conditions for a two-population ESS, which are less restric- tive than Taylor's conditions, are sufficient for local stability of fixation states but not for local stability of polymor- phic equilibria when selection is strong.
Authors:Guodong Zheng, Bihong Fu, Yi Duan, Qi Wang, M. Matsuo, and B. Takano
Mesozoic-Cenozoic reddish and green beds are widely distributed in northwest China. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that the composition of iron species varies with color in the middle-upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks from the Turpan Basin. Three main kinds of iron species were identified: (1) ferric iron of hematite (hem-Fe3+), (2) paramagnetic ferric iron (para-Fe3+), and (3) paramagnetic ferrous iron (para-Fe2+). Pyrite iron (pyr-Fe2+) was revealed only in a few samples. In general, there is a direct correlation between rock color, iron species and total iron content, however, in detail, this relationship is more complicated. The reddish rocks contain higher contents of total iron and hem-Fe3+, whereas the gray rocks contain much more para-Fe2+. However, relatively low hematite content cannot give red color to rocks, probably due to suppression by other pigments such as organic matter in black or chlorite in green. The dark or green rocks normally contain either only paramagnetic Fe2+ and paramagnetic Fe3+ species or these two species associated with hematite Fe3+, but the relative content of hematite species is lower. The variations of different iron species control lithological properties such as color and also may reflect the sedimentary conditions. Moreover, iron speciation in these rocks is one of the main factors, which result the color features of rocks in remote sensing imagery.
Authors:X.M. Fang, H.Z. She, C. Wang, X.B. Liu, Y.S. Li, J. Nie, R.W. Ruan, T. Wang, and Z.L. Yi
Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown throughout the world for its specific quality. Fertilization and planting density are two crucial factors that affect waxy wheat yield and photosynthetic capacity. The objectives of the research were to determine the effects of fertilization and planting density on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components of waxy wheat, including Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, PH, HI, Pn, Gs, Ci, E and WUE using the method of field experiment, in which there were three levels (150, 300, and 450 kg ha−1) of fertilizer application rate and three levels (1.35, 1.8, and 2.25 × 106 plants ha−1) of planting density. The results suggested that photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components had close relationship with fertilization levels and planting density. Under the same plant density, with the increase of fertilization, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI, Pn, Gs, E and WUE increased and then decreased, PH increased, but Ci decreased. Under the same fertilization, with the increase of plant density, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI increased and then decreased, PH, Pn, Gs and E increased, PH and WUE declined. The results also showed that F2 (300 kg ha−1) and D2 (1.8 × 106 plants ha−1) was a better match in this experiment, which could obtain a higher grain yield 4961.61 kg ha−1. Consequently, this combination of fertilizer application rate and plant densities are useful to get high yield of waxy wheat.