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Abstract  

Hydrogen gas (H2) was produced by gamma-irradiation of pure water in the presence of various TiO2 catalysts. Most catalysts used in this work largely enhanced the radiolytic decomposition of water and subsequent production of H2. The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. The addition of methanol as a sacrificing agent further increased the H2 production by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and the scavenging activity was directly identified using an EPR/spin-trapping technique. Among the catalysts studied, nanosized TiO2 (nTiO2) showed an excellent activity in the production of H2. Furthermore, the addition of EDTA instead of methanol largely increased the H2 production. This is quite promising since waste compounds such as EDTA can be removed with concomitant H2 production

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Summary  

The Advanced Spent Conditioning Process (ACP) developed by the KAERI is based on pyrometallurgy and the electrolytic reduction plays a central role in transforming spent oxide fuels into metals. The constituents of the spent fuels are distributed between a salt and a reduced metal phase during electrolysis. Lithium metal is produced in a molten LiCl-Li2O cell and then it reacts with the metal oxides of the spent fuel producing Li2O and reduced metals. By focusing on the activity of Li2O and the electric potential, the electrolytic reduction process of the ACP is discussed. Thermodynamic considerations are defined and operation conditions are proposed including Li2O activity and cell potential.

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The new genus Kashiwadia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, gen. nov. for the Eastern Asian species Physcia orientalis Kashiw. being in isolated position in the genus Physcia after morphological and anatomical characters as well as showing closer relation to the Heterodermia branch (than to the Physcia branch) in phylogenetic tree of the Physciaceae based on results of ITS1/ITS2 nuclear ribosomal and positioning in separate branch after 12S SSU mitochondrial DNA sequences and combined data set is proposed. Description of new genus and new combination is provided.

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The new genus Oxnerella is proposed for the lichen similar to Iranian endemic species Lecania ochronigra J. Steiner. Its isolated position in the phylogenetic tree after combined ITS nrDNA and 12S SSU mtDNA data set including members of the Ramalinaceae, Lecideaceae, Lecanoraceae and Megasporaceae is discussed. Description of the new species Oxnerella safavidiorum, comparison with allied taxa and illustrations is provided. The new combination Thamnolecania racovitzae (basionym: Lecanora racovitzae Vain.) is proposed.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Kondratyuk, M.-H. Jeong, N.-H. Yu, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, J. Elix, J. Kim, A. Kondratyuk, and J.-S. Hur

Four new monophyletic groups are found within the teloschistoid clade of the subfamily Xanthorioideae in the Teloschistaceae using nuclear (ITS1/ITS2) and mitochondrial (12S mtSSU gene) DNA sequences. These groups are proposed as new genera: Brownliella gen. nova for the widely distributed Caloplaca cinnabarina group, Filsoniana gen. nova for the Australian Caloplaca australiensis group, Fulgogasparrea gen. nova for the Western Pacific species Caloplaca decipioides, and Kaernefia gen. nova for the Southern Hemisphere Caloplaca kaernefeltii group. Massalongo’s genus Niorma is resurrected for the Teloschistes hypoglaucus group.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, M.-H. Jeong, S.-O. Oh, A. S. Kondratiuk, and J.-S. Hur

Three genera new for science, i.e. Candelinella S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelariella makarevichiae group, Opeltiella S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelaria fraudans group, as well as Protocandelariella Poelt, D. Liu, J.-S. Hur et S. Y. Kondr. for the Candelariella subdeflexa group are proposed for robust monophyletic branches of the Candelariaceae on the basis of three-gene phylo- geny (i.e. concatenated nrITS, 12S mtSSU and 28S nrLSU sequences). Eight new combinations, i.e. Candelinella makarevichiae (for Candelariella makarevichiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lokos et J.-S. Hur), Candelinella deppeanae (for Candelariella deppeanae M. Westb.), Opeltiella fraudans (for Candelaria fraudans Poelt et Oberw.), Opeltiella fibrosoides (for Candelaria fibrosoides M. Westb. et Froden), Opeltiella rubrisoli (for Candelariella rubrisoli D. Liu et J.-S. Hur), Opeltiella canadensis (for Candelariella canadensis H. Magn.), Protocandelariella subdeflexa (for Lecanora subdeflexa Nyl.), Protocandelariella blastidiata (for Candelariella blastidiata L. Yakovchenko) are provided.

Molecular data provided for Candelinella makarevichiae (including holotype and iso- type), as well as additional specimens of Candelaria asiatica from South Korea for the first time. The latter species (Candelaria asiatica) from China, as well as’Candelaria’ murrayi from Argentina, South America are recorded for the first time. Voucher of Candelariella vitellina from Antarctica is also identified based on molecular phylogeny. It is for the first time shown that ’Candelaria’murrayi is positioned in the outermost position to Candelaria s. str. branch of the phylogenetic tree of the Candelariaceae, and may belong to another genus. Status of the ’Candelariella’medians group, the’Candelariella’ placodizans group, as well as single species ’Candelariella’reflexa and’Candelaria’ pacifica, forming separate branches outside the Candelariella s. str. and Candelaria s. str. clades, will be clarified when additional molecular data will be accumulated. Candelariella subsquamulosa D. Liu et Hur, recently described from South Korea (Liu et al. 2019), proved to be a new synonym of Candelinella makarevichiae.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Kondratyuk, M.-H. Jeong, N.-N. Yu, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, J. Elix, J. Kim, A. Kondratiuk, and J.-S. Hur

Seven strongly supported clades, characterised by molecular, morphological and anatomical characters are described as new genera: Eilifdahlia, Elenkiniana, Franwilsia, Huneckia, Marchantiana, Mikhtomia and Yoshimuria. Two new species, Eilifdahlia wirthii from South Africa and Marchantiana maulensis from Chile are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Kondratyuk, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, J. Elix, J. Kim, M.-H. Jeong, N.-N. Yu, A. Kondratiuk, and J.-S. Hur

The phylogeny of the subfamily Xanthorioideae (Teloschistaceae) is re-analysed based on ITS, LSU and mtSSU sequences, including a new set of specimens representing 31 genera, of which five are proposed as new: Golubkovia, Igneoplaca, Langeottia, Scythioria and Verrucoplaca. Two new species, Ovealmbornia volkmarwirthii from South Africa and Gondwania sejongensis from Antarctica are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Eleven new combinations are proposed in the genera Calogaya, Cerothallia, Flavoplaca, Gondwania, Igneoplaca, Scythioria and Verrucoplaca, but the status of four earlier established genera, Pachypeltis, Parvoplaca, Solitaria and Xanthopeltis, remains uncertain and needs further studies.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. A. Kim, A. S. Kondratiuk, M.-H. Jeong, S. H. Jang, S.-O. Oh, X. Y. Wang, and J.-S. Hur

The robust monophyletic branch having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetical tree of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data set of ITS, LSU nrDNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Caloplacoideae, is described as the new genus Fauriea S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, gen. nova for lecanoroid South Korean Caloplaca chujaensis, and newly described Eastern Chinese Fauriea orientochinensis. Descriptions of the new genus Fauriea and the species Fauriea orientochinensis, a comparison with closely related taxa and a discussion of their position are provided. New name Tayloriellina is proposed for the genus of the subfamily Brownlielloideae Tayloriella S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell, Elix et Hur (nom. illeg., non Tayloriella Kylin, Rhodomebaceae, Rhodophyta). New combinations for type species of the genera Fauriea and Tayloriellina (i.e.: Fauriea chujaensis (basionym: Caloplaca chujaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), and Tayloriellina erythrosticta (basionym: Lecanora erythrosticta Taylor)) are proposed. Fauriea chejuensis and Biatora pseudosambuci are for the first time recorded for China.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, D. K. Upreti, S. Nayaka, G. K. Mishra, S. Ravera, M.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Jang, J. S. Park, and J.-S. Hur

Seventeen robust monophyletic branches newly discovered in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae after separate nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU, as well as combined phylogenetic analysis are proposed to consider as the following separate genera: Dijigiella S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös gen. nov. for the D. kaernefeltiana group, Elixjohnia S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Sirenophila jackelixii group, Fominiella S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the F. tenerifensis group; Gintarasiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca aggregata, Hanstrassia S. Y. Kondr. gen. nov. for the Elenkiniana lenae group, Harusavskia S. Y. Kondr. gen. nov. for H. elenkinianoides sp. n., Huriella S. Y. Kondr. et D. Upreti gen. nov. for H. loekoesiana sp. n., Ikaeria S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca aurantiellina, Klauderuiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Variospora thallincola group, Laundonia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Gyalolechia flavovirescens group, Lazarenkoiopsis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for Caloplaca ussuriensis, Nevilleiella S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca marchantii group, Opeltia S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös gen. nov. for the Caloplaca neobaltistanica group, Oxneriopsis S. Y. Kondr., D. Upreti et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca oxneri group, Teuvoahtiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Caloplaca rugulosa group, Tomnashia S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur gen. nov. for the Polycauliona rosei group, and Xanthaptychia S. Y. Kondr. et S. Ravera gen. nov. for the Seirophora orientalis group.

Hitherto missing molecular data on three gene sequences of the type species of the genera Seirophora and Sirenophila are completed within this study.

Six new to science species (Dijigiella kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr. sp. n., D. subaggregata S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt sp. n., Fominiella tenerifensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et T. Feuerer sp. n., Hanstrassia jaeseounhurii S. Y. Kondr., Ch.-H. Park et L. Lőkös sp. n., Harusavskia elenkinianoides S. Y. Kondr., X. Y. Wang, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur sp. n., Huriella loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et D. Upreti sp. n.) are described, compared with closely related taxa.

A total of 34 new combinations for genera mentioned above are proposed.

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