Authors:Yusuf Karavelioğlu, Tolga Doğan, Macit Kalçik, and Volkan Çamkiran
This case illustrates an unusual coronary pseudo-obstruction due to competitive coronary flows from critical proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery stenosis and collateral vessels from distal right coronary artery. The flow dynamics of both antegrade and retrograde flows counterbalanced each other at the second diagonal branch level of LAD causing a total pseudo-obstruction image.
Authors:Oğuzhan Çelik, Erkan Demirci, Mustafa Aydın, Turgut Karabag, and Macit Kalçık
Ghrelin has recently been reported to have beneficial effects on cardiac contractile functions and coronary blood flow. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of coronary slow flow (CSF) together with endothelial functions.
Twenty-five patients having normal coronary arteries with CSF and 25 controls with normal coronary flow were included into the study. The quantitative measurement of coronary blood flow was performed for each coronary artery using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) method. Ghrelin levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method from venous blood samples. Endothelial functions were evaluated from the brachial artery with the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrate-related dilation methods.
There was a significant difference in terms of mean TFC values between the control and CSF groups (p < 0.001 for all coronary arteries). The mean FMD percentage among patients with CSF was lower than that of the control group (5.9 ± 0.8 vs. 10.7% ± 1.1%; p < 0.001). A moderate negative correlation was observed between the FMD percentages and the TFCs. There was no relationship between the TFC and ghrelin levels.
Plasma ghrelin levels seem to be uninfluential while impaired endothelial functions play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of CSF.
Authors:Yusuf Karavelioğlu, Sultan Özkurt, Macit Kalçik, Hekim Karapinar, and Arif Arisoy
Heart is affected structurally and functionally in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the data available about adverse effects of ESRD on right ventricle (RV) is scarce. We aimed to evaluate echocardiographic parameters of RV in nondiabetic, normotensive patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD).
A total of 45 (24 women; mean age 52.4 ± 12.4 years) consecutive nondiabetic, normotensive patients with ESRD undergoing HD and 39 healthy age and sex-matched control subjects (22 women; mean age 50.3 ± 6.6 years) were enrolled in the study. M-mode and two dimensional images, color, pulsed and continuous wave Doppler, and tissue Doppler measurements were acquired from all subjects. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in the days between HD dates of the patients.
RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid E velocity, E/A ratio, tricuspid annular E′ velocity, and E′/A′ ratio were lower in patients than controls (p > 0.001, p = 0.003, p = 0.007, p = 0.005, p > 0.001, and p = 0.034, respectively). However, RV diastolic area, RV myocardial performance index, E/E′ ratio, and mean and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were higher in patients than controls (p > 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.005, p > 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively).
RV systolic and diastolic functions of nondiabetic, normotensive HD patients are deteriorated as compared to healthy controls.
Authors:Oğuzhan Çelik, Lütfü Bekar, Mucahit Yetim, Tolga Doğan, Çağlar Alp, Macit Kalçık, and Yusuf Karavelioğlu
Coronary pseudoaneurysms (CPAs) are rare complications developed after percutaneous coronary interventions. They may cause stent thrombosis, distal embolization, and coronary rupture leading to cardiac tamponade. Therefore, high-risk CPA should be promptly treated after diagnosis. They can be managed with percutaneous or surgical intervention. Herein, we aimed to present a patient who developed CPA 3 weeks after percutaneous coronary intervention and successfully treated with percutaneous intervention using a covered stent.
Authors:Mahmut Yesin, Cüneyt Toprak, Emrah Acar, Macit Kalçık, Ahmet Erdal Taşçı, and Selçuk Pala
Behçet’s disease (BD) is an autoimmune disorder affecting multiple organs. Aortic pseudoaneurysm is the most catastrophic lesion in BD. This lesion type is considered as a complicated and challenging pathology by surgeons because of the technical operative difficulties and frequent recurrence. So, the endovascular repair of inflammatory aortic pseudoaneurysm has been used as an alternative to open surgical repair. It is particularly important in patients who are high-risk surgical candidates because of comorbidities. In this report, we present a case and treatment of bronchial obstruction, which caused progressive dyspnea after endovascular repair of aortic rupture, in patient with known history of BD.
Authors:Erkan Demirci, Oğuzhan Çelik, Macit Kalçık, Lütfü Bekar, Mucahit Yetim, and Tolga Doğan
Previous studies have demonstrated that homocysteine and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels were strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of plasma homocysteine and ADMA levels in the pathogenesis of coronary slow flow (CSF) phenomenon.
Twenty-three patients with CSF and 25 controls with normal coronary flow were included in this study. The quantitative measurement of coronary blood flow was performed using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count method. Plasma homocysteine and ADMA levels were determined using enzymatic assays from venous blood samples.
The patients with CSF had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels than controls (16.2 ± 7.6 vs. 12.2 ± 2.2 μM/L; p = 0.023). The uric acid levels were significantly higher in CSF group than controls (5.4 ± 1.1 vs. 4.6 ± 0.9 mg/dl; p = 0.011). Plasma ADMA levels were also higher in the CSF group; however, this was not statistically significant (0.6 ± 0.1 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2 μM/L; p = 0.475).
Increased homocysteine and uric acid levels may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CSF. Further large scale studies are required to determine the relationship between ADMA levels and CSF.
Authors:Macit Kalçık, Mucahit Yetim, Tolga Doğan, İbrahim Doğan, Barış Eser, Lütfü Bekar, Oğuzhan Çelik, and Yusuf Karavelioğlu
Current evidence indicates that vascular calcification plays an essential role in the development of cardiovascular diseases in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Arterial stiffness is a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in various populations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the elastic properties of ascending aorta in patients with ESRD.
This single-center study enrolled 96 patients (45 females, age: 57.2 ± 12.8 years) with ESRD and 96 healthy controls (52 females, age: 55.3 ± 10.1 years). Aortic pressures and aortic elastic parameters including aortic strain, aortic distensibility, aortic stiffness index, and aortic compliance were calculated using accepted formulae.
The hemodynamic parameters including aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean pressure, aortic fractional pulse pressure, and aortic pulsatility index were significantly higher in patients with ESRD. Systolic and diastolic aortic diameters were similar between the groups. However, pulsatile aortic diameter change, aortic strain, aortic distensibility, and aortic compliance were significantly lower, whereas aortic stiffness index was significantly higher in ESRD group.
The results demonstrated that a significant difference was present in terms of aortic blood pressures between patients with ESRD and controls. In addition, the elastic properties of ascending aorta were decreased in patients with ESRD.
Authors:Ahmet Güner, Regayİp Zehİr, Macİt KalçIk, Abdulkadİr Uslu, Altuğ Ösken, Alİ Kemal Kalkan, and Ezgİ Gültekİn Güner
In addition to proinflammatory properties, eosinophils can stimulate platelet activation and enhance prothrombotic pathways. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between the eosinophil percentage (EOS%) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
This study enrolled a total of 1,909 patients who were diagnosed with STEMI. Ventricular arrhythmia, reinfarction, the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, target vessel revascularization, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality during index hospitalization were defined as MACE.
Three hundred and eighty patients (19.7%) reached the combined endpoint with MACE. The rates of inhospital mortality and MACE were significantly higher in low EOS% group as compared to high EOS% group (4% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.01 and 32.8% vs. 11.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analyses, EOS% (OR = 0.44, p < 0.01) was found to be one of the independent predictors of MACE. The EOS% lower than 0.60 on admission predicted inhospital MACE with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 72% (AUC: 0.684, p < 0.01).
Low EOS% on admission may be associated with high inhospital MACE in STEMI patients. EOS% may be used as a novel biomarker for risk stratification of these patients.
Authors:Mahmut Yesin, Turgut Karabağ, Macit Kalçık, Süleyman Karakoyun, Metin Çağdaş, and Zaur İbrahimov
The symptoms of aortic dissection (AD) may be highly variable and may mimic other much common conditions. Thus, a high index of suspicion should be maintaned, especially when the risk factors for AD are present or signs and symptoms suggest this possibility. However, sometimes AD may be asymptomatic or progression may be subclinical. Various electrocardiographical (ECG) changes may be seen in AD patients such as ST segment elevation in aVR as well as ST segment depression and T-wave inversion. In this case report, we reported a patient with acute AD whose ECG revealed ST segment elevation in aVR lead in addition to diffuse ST segment depression in other leads.
Authors:Osman Karaarslan, Macit Kalçık, Volkan Çamkıran, Sinan Eliaçık, Çağlar Alp, and Yusuf Karavelioğlu
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to septic coronary embolism is a rare complication of infective endocarditis (IE) and is associated with high mortality rates. When common signs of IE are often overlooked on admission, the diagnosis may be established through complications, which may cause prominent symptoms. Here, we report a case of native mitral valve endocarditis with an unusual presentation with STEMI and concomitant ischemic stroke, which was due to multiple coronary and cerebral septic embolisms.