Authors:Abdullah Altayban, Mahmoud Kandeel, Yukio Kitade, and Mohammed Al-Nazawi
This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in camel calves after a single intramuscular injection in a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight (kg b. w.). Cefquinome concentrations were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A non-compartmental pharmacokinetic model was used to fit the time–concentration curve and estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 28.4 μg/mL at the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) of 25 min. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 17.4 h. The area under the concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞) was 103.7 μg/ml−1h and the mean residence time (MRT0–∞) was 21.3 h. In comparison with other animal species, the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in Arabian camel calves showed faster absorption from the site of injection and slower elimination. Since cefquinome, as other beta-lactams, is a time-dependent antimicrobial agent, a single dose of 2 mg/kg b. w. might be sufficient against the most sensitive organisms in camel calves owing to its prolonged elimination phase. However, dose readjustment is required for cases needing concentrations above 2 µg/mL for 12 h or above 1 µg/mL for 24 h.
Authors:Gamal Badra, Mahmoud Lotfy, Amany El-Refaie, Moanis Obada, Elhamy Abdelmonem, Samia Kandeel, and Amr Fathy
Liver fibrosis (LF), where the chronic HCV infection is a major cause, is a characteristic of chronic liver diseases. LF results from chronic damage to the liver in conjunction with the accumulation of ECM proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs) are thought to play an essential role in the hepatic lesions. The available data concerning the circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in chronic hepatitis C are not conclusive. Therefore, the present study was designed to seek the relationship between serum MMP-9, and TIMP-1 to liver status in chronic liver disease in fifty patients divided into three groups (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were analyzed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the lowest serum level of MMP-9 was found in chronic hepatitis patients compared to the control (
< 0.05). Serum MMP-9 is decreasing during progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis showing the least level in the cirrhotic group. Serum TIMP-1 was significantly higher in the cirrhotic group compared to chronic hepatitis (
< 0.05) and controls (
< 0.001). MMP-9 was negatively correlated to both TIMP-1 and the histological severity in chronic hepatitis. There was a positive correlation between TIMP-1 and the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.73,
< 0.001). Lastly, there was a statistically significant increase of MMP-9 (
< 0.001) and TIMP-1 (
< 0.05) in HCC patients compared with the other groups. In conclusion, these findings raise the possibility of using serum TIMP-1 as a non-invasive assay in liver fibrosis. Further, the altered balance between circulating MMP-9 and TIMP-1 during HCV infection may play an important role in aggravating liver injury progression in chronic liver diseases.