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Thermochemical properties of two nitrothiophene derivatives

2-acetyl-5-nitrothiophene and 5-nitro-2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Manuel Ribeiro da Silva and Ana Santos

Abstract  

This article reports the values of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{\Updelta}}_{\text{f}} H_{\text{m}}^{\text{o}} \left( {\text{g}} \right),$$ \end{document}
at T = 298.15 K, of 2-acetyl-5-nitrothiophene and 5-nitro-2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde as −(48.8 ± 1.6) and (4.4 ± 1.3) kJ mol−1, respectively. These values were derived from experimental thermodynamic parameters, namely, the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{\Updelta}}_{\text{f}} H_{\text{m}}^{\text{o}} \left( {\text{cr}} \right) ,$$ \end{document}
at T = 298.15 K, obtained from the standard molar enthalpies of combustion,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{\Updelta}}_{\text{c}} H_{\text{m}}^{\text{o}} ,$$ \end{document}
measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry, and from the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, determined from the temperature–vapour pressure dependence, obtained by the Knudsen mass loss effusion method. The results are interpreted in terms of enthalpic increments and the enthalpic contribution of the nitro group in the substituted thiophene ring is compared with the same contribution in other structurally similar compounds.
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Abstract  

The present work reports the experimental determination of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed and gaseous phases, at T = 298.15 K, of 5- and 6-nitroindazole. These results were derived from the measurements of the standard molar energies of combustion, using a static bomb calorimeter and from the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation derived by the application of Clausius–Clapeyron to the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. The results are interpreted in terms of the energetic contributions of the nitro groups in the different positions of the aromatic ring.

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Abstract  

The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state of the 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxymethylphenols,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{\Updelta}}_{\text{f}} H_{\text{m}}^{\text{o}} ( {\text{cr)}} = \, - ( 3 7 7. 7 \pm 1. 4)\,{\text{kJ}}\,{\text{mol}}^{ - 1}$$ \end{document}
,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{\Updelta}}_{\text{f}} H_{\text{m}}^{\text{o}} ( {\text{cr) }} = - (383.0 \pm 1.4) \, \,{\text{kJ}}\,{\text{mol}}^{ - 1}$$ \end{document}
and
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${{\Updelta}}_{\text{f}} H_{\text{m}}^{\text{o}} ( {\text{cr)}} = - (382.7 \pm 1.4)\,{\text{kJ}}\,{\text{mol}}^{ - 1}$$ \end{document}
, respectively, were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO2(g) and H2O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence of the vapour pressure of the solid isomers of hydroxymethylphenol with the temperature, from which the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were derived using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The results were as follows:
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\rm cr}^{\rm g} H_{\rm m}^{\rm o} = (99.5 \pm 1.5)\,{\text{kJ}}\,{\text{mol}}^{ - 1}$$ \end{document}
,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\rm cr}^{\rm g} H_{\rm m}^{\rm o} = (116.0 \pm 3.7) \,{\text{kJ}}\,{\text{mol}}^{ - 1}$$ \end{document}
and
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\rm cr}^{\rm g} H_{\rm m}^{\rm o} = (129.3 \pm 4.7)\,{\text{ kJ mol}}^{ - 1}$$ \end{document}
, for 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol, respectively. From these values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the title compounds in their gaseous phases, at T = 298.15 K, were derived and interpreted in terms of molecular structure. Moreover, using estimated values for the heat capacity differences between the gas and the crystal phases, the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the three hydroxymethylphenols.
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Abstract  

The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation
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of the liquid 2-methylfuran, 5-methyl-2-acetylfuran and 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet high temperature vacuum sublimation technique was used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of the three compounds. The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the liquid phase and the standard molar enthalpies of vaporization. The results obtained were −(76.4 ± 1.2), −(253.9 ± 1.9), and −(196.8 ± 1.8) kJ mol−1, for 2-methylfuran, 5-methyl-2-acetylfuran, and 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, respectively.
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Abstract  

The molar heat capacity and the standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline of bis(glycinate)lead(II), Pb(gly)2; bis(dl-alaninate)lead(II), Pb(dl-ala)2; bis(dl-valinate)lead(II), Pb(dl-val)2; bis(dl-valinate)cadmium(II), Cd(dl-val)2 and bis(dl-valinate)zinc(II), Zn(dl-val)2, were determined, at T = 298.15 K, by differential scanning calorimetry, and high precision solution-reaction calorimetry, respectively. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar metal–ligand dissociation enthalpies, M(II)–amino acid,
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(M–L), were derived and compared with analogous copper(II)–ligand and nickel(II)–ligand.θθ
M(II)–amino acid
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(cr)/kJ mol−1
Bis(glycinate)lead(II), Pb(gly)2 −998.9 ± 1.9
Bis(dl-alaninate)lead(II), Pb(ala)2 −1048.7 ± 1.8
Bis(dl-valinate)lead(II), Pb(val)2 −1166.3 ± 2.5
Bis(dl-valinate)cadmium(II), Cd(val)2 −1243.7 ± 2.7
Bis(dl-valinate)zinc(II), Zn(val)2 −1306.1 ± 2.3
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