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Abstract  

The involvement of male and female scientists in the technological activity developed in Spain is analysed through the study of patent applications filed with the Spanish OEPM database during the period 1990–2005. Comparative analyses based on participation, contribution and inventors by gender are presented and discussed. The study reveals a low female involvement in technology, which tends to concentrate in specific institutional sectors (public research institutions) and technological sections (A/Human Necessities and C/Chemistry). Over the 16-year period analysed the involvement of female scientists rose at a higher rate than that of men in most of the institutional sectors and technological fields. The highest relative increase corresponds to University and Spanish National Research Council, and our data suggest that it is enhanced by collaboration. To make the production of sex-disaggregated technology indicators easier the inclusion of the sex of the inventors as an additional field in patent databases would be desirable, as well as a higher normalisation of inventor names, applicant names (full names) and institutional affiliations.

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Bibliometric analysis of publications of Spanish pharmacologists in the SCI (1984–89). Part II

Contribution to subfields other than “pharmacology & pharmacy” (ISI)

Scientometrics
Authors: Maria Bordons and S Barrigón

Abstract  

During the period 1984–89 Spanish pharmacologists published 344 papers (44.3% of their total scientific production) (Science Citation Index, CD-Edition) in journals classified by theSCI in subfields different from Pharmacology & Pharmacy. Distribution by institutions, geographical regions, journals, subfields and research levels are presented. The Normalized Journal Position (NJP) is introduced as indicator of the expected impact in each subfield. Results are compared with those of the analysis of the production of Spanish pharmacologists in the Pharmacology & Pharmacy subfield, presented in a previous paper. Some of the features detected are common to both areas, such as: increasing trend in the productivity over years, irregular geographical distribution with three regions as major producers, or university as main producer institution. Special features of the extra-Pharmacology area are also pointed out: irregular growth of publication number over years, high dispersion of publications in journals and subfields, high collaboration rate, and low percentage of authors with at least 1 paper/year, among others. Attending to journal of publication, cross-disciplinarity research of Spanish pharmacologists is analysed, being Neurosciences, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Physiology, the main border fields involved.

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Summary  

A comparative analysis of the scientific performance of male and female scientists in the area of Materials Science at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) is presented. Publications of 333 scientists during 1996-2000 are downloaded from the international database Science Citation Index and the national one ICYT. Scientific performance of scientists is studied through different indicators of productivity (number of SCI and ICYT publications), international visibility (average impact factor of publications, percentage of documents in “top journals”) and publication practices (%international publications, signing order of authors in the documents and different collaboration measures). Inter-gender differences in the research performance of scientists are studied. Influence of professional category and age are analysed. Although women are less productive than men, no significant differences in productivity are found within each professional category. However, a different life-cycle of productivity is found for men and woman and the most important inter-gender differences in productivity occur at the ages of 40-59.

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Abstract

Scientific authorship has important implications in science since it reflects the contribution to research of the different individual scientists and it is considered by evaluation committees in research assessment processes. This study analyses the order of authorship in the scientific output of 1,064 permanent scientists at the Spanish CSIC (WoS, 1994–2004). The influence of age, professional rank and bibliometric profile of scientists over the position of their names in the byline of publications is explored in three different research areas: Biology and Biomedicine, Materials Science and Natural Resources. There is a strong trend for signatures of younger researchers and those in the lower professional ranks to appear in the first position (junior signing pattern), while more veteran or highly-ranked ones, who tend to play supervisory functions in research, are proportionally more likely to sign in the last position (senior signing pattern). Professional rank and age have an effect on authorship order in the three fields analysed, but there are inter-field differences. Authorship patterns are especially marked in the most collaboration-intensive field (i.e. Biology and Biomedicine), where professional rank seems to be more significant than age in determining the role of scientists in research as seen through their authorship patterns, while age has a more significant effect in the least collaboration-intensive field (Natural Resources).

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Abstract  

A study of the structure and scientific activity of the most productive Spanish research teams in two biomedical subfields, Pharmacology & Pharmacy and Cardiovascular System (SCI), during the period 1990–93 was carried out through bibliometric indicators. The teams were characterized according to their size, production, productivity, research level and expected impact factor of their output, collaboration pattern and interdisciplinarity. Main differences between both subfields were analyzed and explained by their different clinical/basic character. The study was undertaken to identify structural or dynamic features of teams associated with good scientific performance.

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Abstract  

The ability of g-index and h-index to discriminate between different types of scientists (low producers, big producers, selective scientists and top scientists) is analysed in the area of Natural Resources at the Spanish CSIC (WoS, 1994–2004). Our results show that these indicators clearly differentiate low producers and top scientists, but do not discriminate between selective scientists and big producers. However, g-index is more sensitive than h-index in the assessment of selective scientists, since this type of scientist shows in average a higher g-index/h-index ratio and a better position in g-index rankings than in the h-index ones. Current research suggests that these indexes do not substitute each other but that they are complementary.

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Abstract  

Neutron scattering (NS) is a “big science” discipline whose research spans over a wide spectrum of fields, from fundamental or basic science to technological applications. The objective of this paper is to track the evolution of Spanish research in NS from a bibliometric perspective and to place it in the international context. Scientific publications of Spanish authors included in the Web of Science (WoS 1970–2006) are analysed with respect to five relevant dimensions: volume of research output, impact, disciplinary diversity, structural field features and internationalisation. NS emerges as a highly internationalised fast-growing field whose research is firmly rooted in Physics, Chemistry and Engineering, but with applications in a wide range of fields. International collaboration links -present in around 70% of the documents- and national links have largely contributed to mould the existing structure of research in the area, which evolves around major neutron scattering facilities abroad. The construction of a new European neutron source (ESS) would contribute to the consolidation of the field within the EU, since it will strengthen research and improve current activity.

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Abstract  

This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of the production (1994–2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers’ co-authors but without his/her participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect researchers differently.

Open access

Abstract  

The study aims at designing a set of indicators which, integrated altogether, should be albe to inform on the kind of research published in journal articles and its proximity to their specific forefornts. The set of indicators is composed of two subsets, one including information of the authors, research performers indicators, and other embodying information of the references used, source indicators. The source indicators are compared with the references pattern of specific paradigmatic journals used as standard framework of the research field. Three case studies dealing with the Spanish research on Immunology, Neurosciences and Pharmacognosy will be presented. The application of the indicators gave the following results: Spanish Immunology published in foreign journals was basic in its scope while the one published in domestric journals dealt with applied and clinical Medicine. Neuroscience publsiedh in foreign journals by financed Hospitals appertained to the forefront and presented a broad scope, Neuroscience Published in foreign journals by non-financed Hospitals was applied research and Neuroscience published by Universities, also in foreign journals, represented basic research done in a closed system. The case of Spanish Pharmacognosy is more difficult to interpret as three subject fields are involved (Pharmacology, Chemistry and Botany). The indicators did not clearly differentiate between the research published in domestic and foreign journals, although it seems that Spanish scientists are more interested in the pharmacological and botanical aspect of the natural products than in their chemical structure.

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Abstract  

Impact factor is a quasi-qualitative indicator, which provides a measurement of the prestige and international visibility of journals. Although the use of impact factor-based indicators for science policy purposes has increased over the last two decades, several limitations have been pointed out and should be borne in mind. The use of impact factor should be treated carefully when applied to the analysis of peripheral countries, whose national journals are hardly covered by ISI databases. Our experience in the use of impact factor based indicators for the analysis of the Spanish scientific production is shown. The usefulness of the impact factor measures in macro, meso and micro analyses is displayed. In addition, the main advantages, such as the great accessibility of impact factor and its ready-to-use nature are pointed out. Several limitations such as the need to avoid inter-field comparisons or the convenience of using a fixed journal set for international comparisons are also stressed. It is worth noting that the use of impact factor in the research evaluation process has influenced strongly the publication strategy of scientists.

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