Authors:Doris Lucyshyn, Shamsozoha Abolmaali, Hanna Weindorfer, Mehrdad Shams, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Eva Wilhelm, Marc Lemmens, and Gerhard Adam
The production of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an important virulence factor of the plant pathogenic fungus
on wheat. We have engineered a DON sensitive yeast strain and constructed a cDNA library from DON treated wheat suspension culture cells in a yeast expression vector. The library was used to select DON resistance conferring clones. Besides ORFs of unknown function, we found 3 classes of cDNAs that in addition to DON resistance conferred hypersensitivity to hygromycin and canavanine. The predicted functions of several of the wheat cDNAs (putative E3 ligase, ubiquitin specific protease, proteasome subunit) suggested a role for ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in DON resistance. Results with a coupled wheat germ
translation system and a GUS-luciferase fusion gene showed that DON is a powerful translation elongation inhibitor. The truncated proteins formed in the presence of DON most likely lead to ubiquitin depletion and consequently growth inhibition in yeast. Ubiquitin is essential for many processes in plants, including plant defense. Our results warrant the re-evaluation of the relevance of proteasome system components found to be differentially regulated during
Authors:Marc Lemmens, Andrea Koutnik, Barbara Steiner, Hermann Buerstmayr, Franz Berthiller, Rainer Schuhmacher, Frank Maier, and Wilhelm Schäfer
Our main goal in this contribution was to investigate whether
also governs resistance towards NIV, a trichothecene structurally related to DON. Here we report preliminary results on a first series of experiments done to clarify this issue. Using mutants with a disrupted trichodiene synthase, it is confirmed that NIV and DON production are fungal virulence factors important for the spread of symptoms in the wheat ear but not for the induction of Fusarium head blight. Both toxins affect the probability that symptoms spread. It is demonstrated that NIV is phytotoxic on wheat ears and that the purified toxin can induce symptoms identical to those described for DON.
protects the wheat line against both NIV and DON. The mechanism of NIV resistance is not known but is probably different from the detoxification mechanism of DON. We could not confirm that
increases resistance to both NIV- and DON-producing Fusarium strains.
Authors:Barbara Steiner, Katharina Schieszl, Ewelina Litwicka, Harald Kurz, Marc Lemmens, Haiyan Jia, Gary Muehlbauer, and Hermann Buerstmayr
Molecular mapping led to the identification of two major Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance QTL,
. The actual function of the resistance genes is still unknown. The resistant line CM82036, the susceptible line Remus and six closely related lines were analyzed for differential gene expression after Fusarium attack. The related lines show contrasting levels of FHB resistance due to the possession of
. At anthesis plants were challenged by
or water and at six time points after inoculation gene expression of specific wheat floral tissue was analyzed by cDNA-AFLPs and the Affymetrix Wheat GeneChip.0.44% of the analyzed gene tags by cDNA-AFLPs displayed differential expressions after Fusarium attack depending on the genotype. Five of the gene tags were associated with the FHB resistance level of the genotypes and the possession of resistance alleles at
. These gene tags show homologies to a UDP-glucosyltransferase, wheat phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, DnaJ-like protein, pathogenesis-related family protein and a rice cDNA clone with unknown function. A thorough comparative analysis with the data gained by the Wheat GeneChip experiments is in progress.
Authors:Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Sophia Achab, Joël Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Natacha Carragher, Zsolt Demetrovics, Susumu Higuchi, Daniel L. King, Karl Mann, Marc Potenza, John B. Saunders, Max Abbott, Atul Ambekar, Osman Tolga Aricak, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Norharlina Bahar, Guilherme Borges, Matthias Brand, Elda Mei-Lo Chan, Thomas Chung, Jeff Derevensky, Ahmad El Kashef, Michael Farrell, Naomi A. Fineberg, Claudia Gandin, Douglas A. Gentile, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna E. Goudriaan, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Wei Hao, David C. Hodgins, Patrick Ip, Orsolya Király, Hae Kook Lee, Daria Kuss, Jeroen S. Lemmens, Jiang Long, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Satoko Mihara, Nancy M. Petry, Halley M. Pontes, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Florian Rehbein, Jürgen Rehm, Emanuele Scafato, Manoi Sharma, Daniel Spritzer, Dan J. Stein, Philip Tam, Aviv Weinstein, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Klaus Wölfling, Daniele Zullino, and Vladimir Poznyak
The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.