This study was designed to investigate the effects of excess (24.5 mg Se/kg feed) inorganic and organic dietary selenium supplementation on 3-week-old broilers. The experiments lasted 4 days. Intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (malondialdehyde, MDA) and the amount (reduced glutathione, GSH) and activity (glutathione peroxidase activity, GSHPx) of gluathione redox system were measured in blood plasma, red blood cell hemolysate and liver: Voluntary feed intake in the selenium-treated groups reduced remarkably. Elevated GSH concentration and GSHPx activity were measured in plasma and liver of both selenium-treated groups compared to the untreated control and the ‘pair-fed’ controls. The lipid peroxidation processes in the liver showed higher intensity than the control due to both selenium treatment. The applied dose of selenite and selenomethionine does not inhibit, but even improves the activity of glutathione redox system in the liver during the early period of selenium exposure.
Selenium, as part of selenocysteine, is the active centre of selenoenzymes. Excess amount of selenium generates oxygen free radicals and reacts with thiol compounds such as reduced glutathione, composing seleno-diglutathione. These reactions impair the amount and/or activity of the biological antioxidant defence system. In the present experiment the effects of two inorganic selenium sources (Na2SeO3, Na2SeO4) on lipid peroxidation and on the content and activity of some components of the antioxidant defence mechanism were studied in Ross 308 hybrid cockerels. In the tissues examined, the glutathione redox system was altered in different ways as an effect of excess selenium. The amount of glutathione and, consequently, glutathione peroxidase activity declined in the blood plasma and in the red blood cell haemolysate, while in the liver malondialdehyde concentration increased only at the end of the experimental period as a result of the boosted enzyme activity. The authors suppose that the cause of increased lipid peroxidation was the potential toxic effect of selenium accumulation above the actual demand.
Three groups of cockerels were fed with a control diet, with a diet contaminated with T-2 and HT-2 toxin (0.31 and 0.26 mg/kg) or with that containing a combination of T-2 and HT-2 toxin (0.32 and 0.25 mg/kg) and aflatoxin B
, 0.38 mg/kg) for 21 days. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly among the groups. Malondialdehyde concentration of the liver was lower in the group fed the diet contaminated with the combination of T-2 + HT-2 toxin and aflatoxin B
as compared to the control group or the group fed T-2 + HT-2 toxins. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content of the liver was lower in the T-2 + HT-2 group than in the group fed a combination of T-2, HT-2 and aflatoxin. Reduced glutathione content of the heart was higher in the T-2 + HT-2 group than in the control group. Mycotoxin contamination had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in comparison to the control, but significantly lower GSH-Px activity was found in the heart of chickens in the T-2 + HT-2 + AFB
group than in the T-2 + HT-2 group. In this study, T-2 + HT-2 toxin and aflatoxin B
contamination of the diets did not affect the production traits adversely and did not exert additive effects on lipid peroxidation and on the glutathione redox system.
The effect of feeding ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated diet (379.6 and 338.1 μg/kg in starter and grower diets) on production traits, lipid peroxidation and some parameters of the glutathione redox system were investigated in weaned piglets over a seven-week period. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly, but in the first phase (0–28 days) the daily weight gain was significantly lower in the piglets fed the OTA-contaminated diet. Lipid peroxidation, as measured by the amount of malondialdehyde, glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity, did not change significantly in the blood plasma and red blood cell haemolysate in the OTA-loaded group, while malondialdehyde content increased significantly in the liver and markedly but not significantly in the kidney of piglets fed OTA-contaminated feed. Glutathione content did not differ significantly in the studied organs of the two groups while glutathione peroxidase activity of the OTA-loaded animals was significantly lower both in the liver and in the kidney. The results suggest that the use of feed-stuffs contaminated with low levels of OTA for seven weeks did not cause marked differences in the production traits or in lipid peroxidation and amount or activity of the glutathione redox system in the blood plasma, red blood cells and kidney, while significant changes occurred in the liver homogenate.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of experimental T-2 toxin load (2.35 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin E supply in the drinking water (10.5 mg/bird/day) on vitamin E levels of the blood plasma and liver in broiler chickens in a 14-day experiment. It was found that T-2 toxin load did not influence vitamin E content of the blood plasma except at day 3 after the toxin load when a moderate increase was detected in plasma vitamin E. No significant changes were found in vitamin E content of the liver. The simultaneous use of high-dose vitamin E supplementation and T-2 toxin load caused a significantly higher plasma vitamin E content but the changes were less expressed in the group subjected to T-2 toxin load. Vitamin E supply also resulted in a marked and significant increase in vitamin E concentrations of the liver on days 3 and 7 even in the T-2 loaded group, but this concentration significantly decreased thereafter. The results show that T-2 contamination of the diet has an adverse effect on the utilisation of vitamin E in broiler chickens.
Bevezetés: Nemzetközi összehasonlításban a rosszindulatú
daganatos incidencia és mortalitás tekintetében Magyarország az élvonalba
tartozik. A halálozási statisztikát a Központi Statisztikai Hivatal a
hatpéldányos Halottvizsgálati bizonyítványok feldolgozása alapján készíti el,
míg az új daganatos betegségek előfordulásának populációalapú mérését a Nemzeti
Rákregiszter végzi. Célkitűzés: A Központi Statisztikai Hivatal
és a Nemzeti Rákregiszter független adatbázisainak összekapcsolása rávilágíthat
egymás gyengeségeire, emellett lehetőséget teremt az adatok verifikációjára,
pontosítására, kiegészítésére, valamint a jelenlegi adatcsere bővítésének
szükségességére. Módszer: A Központi Statisztikai Hivatal 2012
és 2020 közötti halálozási adatait a társadalombiztosítási azonosító jel alapján
kötöttük össze a Nemzeti Rákregiszter 2001 és 2020 közötti adatbázisával. A
2018-ra vonatkozó – főképpen tüdőrákos – haláleseteket mélyebb vizsgálatnak
vetettük alá, mellyel az adatbevitel hiányosságai mellett a két állomány közötti
eltéréseket is demonstráltuk. Eredmények: A Központi
Statisztikai Hivatal 2018-ra vonatkozó halálozási adatbázisában 32 586 esetben
rosszindulatú daganat volt a statisztikai közlésre kiválasztott elsődleges
halálok, melyből a Nemzeti Rákregiszterben 29 970-et azonosítottunk. A Központi
Statisztikai Hivatal adatai között 8716, statisztikai közlésre kiválasztott
tüdőrákos halálesetből 7957 személyt találtunk meg a Regiszterben. A 7957
egyezésből a Nemzeti Rákregiszterben 7381-hez tartozott tüdőrákos diagnózis. A
fennmaradó 576 esetet a Regiszter más daganattal rögzítette, a leggyakrabban, 69
esetben tüdőáttét szerepelt. Megbeszélés: A két adatbázis
közötti eltérés adódhat az adatfelvételek metodikai különbségeiből, a jelentési
fegyelem problémáiból, a hiányos, pontatlan kitöltésből és a feldolgozási
algoritmusok különbözőségéből. Mindazonáltal a vizsgált adatbázisok tartalmának
döntő hányada értékes információt tartalmaz, ezért alkalmasak adattudományi
vizsgálatokra. Következtetés: A jelen elemzés tapasztalatai
alapján a két intézmény közötti adatátadás felülvizsgálata várható. Emellett az
elektronikus Halottvizsgálati bizonyítvány bevezetése vélhetően javítani fogja a
társadalombiztosítási azonosító jel kitöltöttség megbízhatóságát, ráadásul a
rendszerbe épített ellenőrzéseknek köszönhetően a kitöltés minősége javulhat, a
feldolgozás ideje lerövidülhet. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(37): 1481–1489.
Milk yield, milk ingredients, health and other, production-related parameters of subclinically infected, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-) shedding (positive faecal PCR, n = 20) and non-shedding (negative faecal PCR, n = 10) dairy cows were compared in the period from 10 days prepartum to 120 days postpartum. Body condition, rumen fill and faeces scores were lower in the MAP-shedding cows. There was no significant difference in plasma or urine metabolic parameters between the groups. Milk yield and lactose content tended to be lower (P = 0.074 and 0.077, respectively), somatic cell count tended to be higher (P = 0.097), while milk fat content was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in MAP-shedding cows than in the controls. Milk protein content did not differ between the groups. All other health and production parameters [number of reproductive tract treatments, number of udder treatments, number of artificial inseminations (AIs), calving interval, and service period] were significantly better in the control group. It is concluded that MAP infection, even in a subclinical form, has a significant impact on some production and health parameters of dairy cows.
The aim of this study was to verify that the comet assay can be used to investigate the DNA damaging effects of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in the liver of broiler chickens. The comet assay is a favorable genotoxic analysis because it is cheap, simple, and can be used in many organisms and different tissues.
Materials and methods
Male broiler chickens were fed with T-2/HT-2 toxins-contaminated diet for 14 days. The comet assay was successfully adapted to chicken liver cells, and the DNA damage was determined by a decrease in the comet parameter (DNA % in the tail) in the experimental groups.
The method of evaluation was found to be critical because DNA damage could not be detected exactly using the CometScore software, due to inaccurate separation of head and comet. However, this problem can be solved by visual evaluation.
In the case of the visual evaluation, each toxin-treated group differed significantly from the control group, indicating that the assay can be useful for the assessment of primary DNA damage caused by T-2/HT-2 toxins.
Hypersexual disorder is characterized by recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, sexual urges, or sexual behaviors that can lead to clinically relevant levels of distress and adverse consequences for affected individuals. Earlier research has established a connection between sexual phenomena, such as compulsive sexual behavior, and personality features. The aim of the present study was to gain further insights into the associations of personality maladjustment and HD.
The present study applied the dimensional approach of personality maladjustment presented in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to connect compulsive sexual behavior to personality maladjustment. We investigated 47 men suffering from HD (age: M = 36.51, SD = 11.47) and 38 matched men without HD (age: M = 37.92, SD = 12.33) regarding personality maladjustment using a 100-item version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-BF).
The men with HD showed higher levels of personality maladjustment regarding all PID-5-BF domains (negative affect, detachment, psychoticism, antagonism, and disinhibition) and significantly differentiated from men without HD in the level of subordinate facets. However, no domain of personality differentiated significantly between groups using a binary stepwise logistic regression analysis.
Discussion and conclusions
In sum, the findings of the study underline the extent of personality maladjustment in men with HD. Interpersonal difficulties which men with HD frequently experience can contribute to clinically relevant levels of distress and adverse consequences reported by affected individuals.