The study was performed in order to evaluate Roundup-induced genotoxic effects in Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Madalin root meristems and to analyze herbicide impact on length growth of barley seedlings. Caryopses were treated for 3 hours and 6 hours with 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% Roundup solutions (v/v), containing 0.36 mg ml−1, 1.8 mg ml−1, 3.6 mg ml−1 and 7.2 mg ml−1 glyphosate active ingredient. Mitotic index decreased in both exposure times with concentration increase. In 3-h treatment, its average values decreased from 4.73 ± 0.31% to 1.51 ± 0.43%, whereas in 6-h treatment this parameter declined from 3.86 ± 0.92% to 0.62 ± 0.15%. The highest ana-telophase aberration rates were noted in 3-h treatments (8.91%, 9.19%, 9.47%, 11.25%, comparatively to control — 5.99%). Roundup enhanced the number of metaphase disturbances proving its noxious effect on normal functioning of mitotic spindle. Seedling growth was negatively influenced at all tested concentrations in both exposure times. The length decreased as concentration increased, so that the average length is 7.5–9 times smaller than in control at the maximum concentration, in both exposures.