Galicia in the second half of the 19th century was home to two main groups which differed in their attitudes toward the composition of the Ukrainian literary language: one group (the West Ukrainian Russophiles) favoured the use of a standard language heavily influenced by Russian and Church Slavic elements, the second one took attempts to create a modern Ukrainian (“Ruthenian”) language prevalently on the basis of the folk language. Volodymyr Navroc’kyj, who was one of the founders of the Galician Ukrainian national movement and took an active part in the development of the national idea among the “narodovci”, realised the obligation of participating in the process of national building as well as in the formation of Ukrainian terminologies, particularly terminologies of natural sciences. A detailed analysis of his morphology, his grammar, and his lexical base, particularly his contribution to the development of Ukrainian terminologies, reflects the will to create the Galician variant of the Modern Ukrainian standard language and shows how this variant of the Ukrainian language was heterogeneous and complex.
In Galicia, at the end of the 19th century attempts were undertaken to create a modern Ukrainian (“Ruthenian”) language predominantly on the basis of common language. Politicians, scientists, artists and the clergy recognised their obligation to participate in the process of creating Ukrainian terminologies, particularly philosophical terminology, in the context of the emerging national language. The usage of philosophical terminology in school books of the period demonstrates the general tendency prevailing in Ukrainian human sciences: translation and loan-translation, parallel use of international and common language forms, use of glosses, etc. A detailed analysis of phonetics, morphology, lexical base and stylistics of the terminological corpus reflects the attempts to create a standard language in Galicia and shows the heterogeneous and complex nature of this variant of the emerging Ukrainian language.
This study reveals the peculiarities of the language spoken by Ukrainian immi¬grants to Argentina, investigates the historical and socio-economic reasons of the Ukrainian immigration and remigration from the end of the 19th century until the nineties of the 20th century. It describes and systematizes the regional origin, the circumstances, and the location where the immigrants settled as well as their organized public life in that country. The paper, which is based on Ukrainian mass media in Argentina of the thirties of the 20th century, affords a detailed language analysis of its morphology, grammar and lexical base, which confirms that the Ukrainian language spoken in Argentina at the time, demonstrates through some dialectal features its West Ukrainian origin.
This study is based on one of the philosophical texts translated by Ivan Franko from German into Ukrainian. It offers a detailed analysis of the language of this publication and reveals its peculiarities compared to Franko’s other translations. Particular attention is paid to the development of the hitherto ill-researched philosophical terminology and the fact that the translation of philosophical literature into Ukrainian was further complicated by intra-language problems. Either Ukrainian equivalents for philosophical terms did not exist, or they were not generally recognized by experts. The process of translating turned into a process of developing the language of philosophy.