Porcine circoviruses (PCV) are widespread in domestic pigs worldwide and there is growing information about the presence of PCV in other suid species. Based on serological studies with sera of wild boars, it was established that PCV1 was present in these animals and antibodies specific to PCV2 were also detected in wild boars living in captivity or in sylvatic areas, both with or without clinical signs of PMWS. Studies including PCV2 genome or antigen detection confirmed the previous findings. This is the first report about the presence of PCV in Transylvanian wild boar populations. Four hundred and sixty-nine samples were collected and grouped according to geographic origin, tested for the presence of PCV DNA using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, and 13.52% of the animals proved to be positive for one or in three cases both of the PCV genotypes. PCV2 was detected in all of the PCV-positive samples.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been demonstrated to be the causal agent for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). This report describes the first detection of PCV2 and associated diseases in a Romanian swine herd located in Transylvania. The clinical signs, pathological and histopathological changes observed in affected pigs were similar to those previously described for PDNS and PMWS. Polymerase chain reaction and
hybridisation were used for the detection of PCV2 nucleic acids from tissues and serum samples. Complete PCV2 genomes of both PMWS and PDNS cases were sequenced and analysed, and by comparing them with each other no genomic differences could be detected. The sequence analysis showed that the Romanian PCV2 was closely related to PCV2 identified in France and in Hungary.