From the ancient Life of Persius we learn that the poet was a cognatus of Arria the Younger, the wife of Thrasea Paetus. Furthermore, we are told that he was pietatis erga matrem et sororem et amitam exemplo sufficientis. As evidence for his piety towards his mother and his sister the biographer mentions that Persius bequeathed his property to them. But we can also find another act of piety towards a relative mentioned in the poet’s biography: a laudatory poem on Arria the Elder. Some considerations about the dates of birth and death of both Arria the Younger and the Elder, Thrasea, and Persius’ father corroborate the assumption that Arria the Elder may have been Persius’ aunt.
Authors:Lei Shi, Tanja Stachon, Lorenz Latta, Mohamed Ibrahem Elhawy, Gubesh Gunaratnam, Erika Orosz, Albrecht F. Kiderlen, Berthold Seitz, Markus Bischoff, and Nóra Szentmáry
We aimed to compare LDH release assay, trypan blue and fluorescent stainings, and non-nutrient Escherichia coli plate assay in determining treatment efficacy of antiamoebic agents against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites/cysts, in vitro. 1BU trophozoites/cysts were challenged with 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanid (PHMB), 0.1% propamidine isethionate (PD), and 0.0065% miltefosine (MF). Efficacies of the drugs were determined by LDH release and trypan blue assays, by Hoechst 33343, calcein-AM, and ethidium homodimer-1 fluorescent dyes, and by a non-nutrient agar E. coli plate assay. All three antiamoebic agents induced a significant LDH release from trophozoites, compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Fluorescent-dye staining in untreated 1BU trophozoites/cysts was negligible, but using antiamoebic agents, there was 59.3%–100% trypan blue, 100% Hoechst 33342, 0%–75.3% calcein-AM, and 100% ethidium homodimer-1 positivity. On E. coli plates, in controls and MF-treated 1BU trophozoites/cysts, new trophozoites appeared within 24 h, encystment occurred after 5 weeks. In PHMB- and PD-treated 1BU throphozoites/cysts, irregularly shaped, smaller trophozoites appeared after 72 h, which failed to form new cysts within 5 weeks. None of the enzymatic- and dye-based viability assays tested here generated survival rates for trophozoites/cysts that were comparable with those yielded with the non-nutrient agar E. coli plate assay, suggesting that the culture-based assay is the best method to study the treatment efficacy of drugs against Acanthamoeba.