Authors:Xue Yang, Joseph T. F. Lau, Zixin Wang and Mason C. M. Lau
Background and aims
Masculine role discrepancy (i.e., men perceiving themselves not living up to the ideal manhood and being less masculine than the typical “man”) and related discrepancy stress were associated with some risk behaviors. No study has looked at their relationships with addictive use of social networking sites (SNSs), an emerging potential public health concern. The study constructed a moderated mediation model to test whether masculine role discrepancy would be positively associated with discrepancy stress, which would, in turn, be positively associated with addictive use of SNS, and whether self-esteem would buffer (moderate) the association between masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress.
A random population-based cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2,000 Hong Kong male adults in the general population.
Currently unmarried and non-cohabiting, younger, and better educated participants reported higher addictive use of SNS scores than others. Adjusted for these variables, masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress were positively associated, and self-esteem was negatively associated with addictive use of SNS scores. Path analysis indicated that masculine role discrepancy was associated with addictive use of SNS through discrepancy stress (mediation); self-esteem buffered (moderated) the association between masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress; self-esteem was not significantly associated with addictive use of SNS in this model with good fit.
The findings support the general strain theory’s postulation that strain is associated with stress, which is in turn associated with addictive use of SNS sites. Implications, potential interventions, and future studies are discussed in this study.
Authors:Xue Yang, Dan Qiu, Mason C. M. Lau and Joseph T. F. Lau
Background and aims
Few studies have tested the underlying mechanisms in the association between workaholism and depression. This study aims to investigate the potential mediation effects of work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue and depression among Chinese male workers in Hong Kong.
A population-based study among male workers in Hong Kong (n = 1,352) was conducted. The self-reported scales of assessing workaholism, work-life balance stress, chronic fatigue and depressive symptoms were included in the questionnaire. Path analysis was conducted to test the proposed mediation model.
Workaholism was directly and indirectly associated with depression through work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue, respectively. The association between work-life balance stress and chronic fatigue was statistically significant in the correlation analysis but not in the path analysis. As high as 30.5% of the participants were classified as having probable chronic fatigue, while 8.4% of the participants were classified as having probable depression.
Workaholism is a stressor that may induce negative consequences on well-being and health among male workers in Hong Kong. Interventions to help workers with time and stress management and fatigue reduction may be beneficial for their mental health. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Authors:Joseph T. F. Lau, Danielle L. Walden, Anise M. S. Wu, Kit-man Cheng, Mason C. M. Lau and Phoenix K. H. Mo
Background and aims
The aim of the study is to investigate (a) whether probable depression status assessed at baseline prospectively predicted new incidence of Internet addiction (IA) at the 12-month follow-up and (b) whether IA status assessed at baseline prospectively predicted new incidence of probable depression at follow-up.
We conducted a 12-month cohort study (n = 8,286) among Hong Kong secondary students, and derived two subsamples. The first subsample (n = 6,954) included students who were non-IA at baseline, using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (≤63), and another included non-depressed cases at baseline (n = 3,589), using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (<16).
In the first subsample, 11.5% of the non-IA cases developed IA during follow-up, and probable depression status at baseline significantly predicted new incidence of IA [severe depression: adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 2.50, 95% CI = 2.07, 3.01; moderate: ORa = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.45, 2.28; mild: ORa = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.32, 2.05; reference: non-depressed], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. In the second subsample, 38.9% of those non-depressed participants developed probable depression during follow-up. Adjusted analysis showed that baseline IA status also significantly predicted new incidence of probable depression (ORa = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.09).
Discussion and conclusions
The high incidence of probable depression is a concern that warrants interventions, as depression has lasting harmful effects in adolescents. Baseline probable depression predicted IA at follow-up and vice versa, among those who were free from IA/probable depression at baseline. Healthcare workers, teachers, and parents need to be made aware of this bidirectional finding. Interventions, both IA and depression prevention, should thus take both problems into consideration.