Granulomatous lesions in bovine and especially swine lymph nodes are still frequently observed during routine veterinary meat inspections even though Mycobacterium bovis infections are no longer detected in domestic animals in Slovenia. Different lymph nodes of pigs (n = 260) were investigated using classical bacteriological and molecular methods. Mycobacterium avium alone was isolated in 47.3% of pigs and in mixed infection with Rhodococcus equi in 3.9% of pigs. R. equi alone was isolated in 27.3% and in mixed infection with mycobacteria other than M. avium in 1.5% of pigs. A total of 133 M. avium isolates were typed using the IS1245, IS901 and FR300 PCR. Almost two thirds (60.9%) of isolates belonged to M. avium hominissuis (IS901-, IS1245+ genotype), 33.8% of isolates belonged to M. avium avium (IS901+, IS1245+ genotype) and 5.3% of isolates remained non-typed. Fifty out of 85 R. equi isolates were tested for the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB). Nearly two thirds (60.0%) were positive for VapB while all the other isolates were VapA- and VapB-negative.
have recently become the most frequent cause of bacterial foodborne enteric infection in most industrialised countries. Consumption and handling of undercooked contaminated poultry meat was identified as an important risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the genetic diversity of
strains isolated from poultry in Slovenia. A total of 68 isolates (42
) from faeces (n = 48), meat (n = 15) and skin/carcasses (n = 5) of chicken (n = 60) and turkey samples (n = 5) were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
I macrorestriction discriminated between
isolates exhibited a higher degree of diversity compared to
isolates. In the
group, a number of small clusters were apparent, while
strains formed less but larger clusters. Additional
I digestion of selected isolates resulted in poor subtyping. Strains with identical or very similar profiles were found on different farms, either in the same or different regions and time periods. Some of the clones indicated possible cross-contamination at slaughterhouses.
During a five-year period (2000 to 2004) 74,342 pigs were tested by the intradermal tuberculin test in Croatia. Of them, 248 (0.33%) pigs were positive and 91 (0.12%) were found to be suspicious in 7 out of the 13 farms included in the study. Gross pathological changes characteristic of tuberculosis were observed in tuberculin-positive and/or suspicious swine. Mycobacterium was isolated from the lymph nodes of 183 out of 234 swine (78.2%). For better epidemiological understanding, isolates were typed by conventional methods, PCR and hybridisation. The results show that most of the isolates belonged to the
complex (175 isolates, 95.7%). Other isolates belonged to
(6 isolates, 3.3%),
(1 isolate, 0.5%), and
(1 isolate, 0.5%). Isolated strains of the
complex were identified as
M. a. avium
(37 isolates, 21.1%) and
M. a. hominissuis
(138 isolates, 78.9%).