Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
Due to the significance of industrial waste water pollution, which creates severe health hazards in humans, this study concentrates
over the reduction and determination of the amounts of toxic metals/pollution parameters in the effluents leached from different
processes of the textile industry. The concentrations of metal ions were measured by using neutron activation analysis (NAA)
technique. The values of toxic metals such as As (49.1 ± 1.8 mg/L), Cu (42.7 ± 1.5 mg/L), Ni (41.1 ± 3.3 mg/L), Mn (51.1 ± 0.7 mg/L),
Sb (1.89 ± 0.04 mg/L), Se (0.41 ± 0.01 mg/L), Co (7.5 ± 0.3 mg/L), Cr (8.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and Cd (1.21 ± 0.08 mg/L) were found
very high in crude textile’s effluents as compared to their standard recommended limits. The immense variation observed among
the injurious pollutants of the effluents i.e. pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, biological oxygen demands,
chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total solids etc. The toxic metals and injurious
pollutants in the unprocessed effluents have been reduced in the post filtration effluents up to 98% and 96% respectively
with the help of an ultra-filtration membrane therapy unit.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents
from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect,
it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this
context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations
of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values
of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively
which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence.
After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents.
Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended
by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS).
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Arif
Due to the inadequate water sources, usually sewerage water and industrial effluents are being use for irrigation of the agricultural
land around the industrial areas in Pakistan wherein crops and vegetables are cultivated. As untreated effluents contain heavy
elements, toxic metals and organic pollutants that may find its way through food chain to general public and may cause health
hazards. It is, therefore, mandatory to assess the toxic metals in such crops and vegetables. In this regard, samples of corn,
millet, cabbage, spinach and potato were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of the Faisalabad and Gujranwala
regions. The food samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentration values
of Arsenic (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g) and Cobalt (0.85 ± 0.01 μg/g) were found in cabbage whereas Manganese (91.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), Antimony
(0.15 ± 0.03 μg/g) and Selenium (1.1 ± 0.1 μg/g) were observed in spinach and Chromium (9.63 ± 1.3 μg/g) was found in millet
crop. The observed concentrations of all the toxic and heavy metals in crops and vegetables are higher than those reported
in the literature.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Arif
Pakistan is an agricultural country, yet it is facing a serious threat due to the shortage of water resources and degradation
of the agricultural land by the pollution of industrial effluents. A limited number of the current industries are equipped
with proper operating treatment plants. Generally, the untreated effluents are disposed off to the open environment which
is used for irrigation purposes. Therefore, vegetables and crops grown around the industrial areas is a major potential source
of metal poisoning which pose a serious risk to the general public. Hence, study of the toxicity level in vegetables and crops
is highly desirable. In this regard, systematic studies have been carried out to determine concentration levels of toxic elements
in the samples of vegetables, crops, effluents and soil collected from the industrial areas of the Faisalabad. After processing,
these samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric techniques. The highest
concentrations of toxic metals were observed for As (2.73 ± 0.34) in cabbage, Cd (1.5 ± 0.1), Ni (5.1 ± 0.9) and Pb (4.3 ± 0.2)
in corn, Co (0.65 ± 0.02), and Sb (0.09 ± 0.01) in carrot, Cr (9.63 ± 1.3), Mn (46.5 ± 4.2) and Se (1.03 ± 0.1) in millet,
Cu (11.3 ± 1.1) in tomato vegetables and crop samples. Although, the observed toxicity levels in vegetables and crop samples
were higher than those grown in non-industrial areas, yet these toxicity levels are within the safe recommended limits.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, K. Naeem, and M. Akram
The consumption of salad vegetables grown in industrial areas may create adverse affects on human health by causing serious
diseases and impairment of the vital organs of human body. To determine the concentrations of toxic metals such as, As, Co,
Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb and Se in salad vegetables namely tomato, cabbage, turnip, radish, carrot, onion, salad leaves, beet and cucumber,
the samples were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. After processing,
the samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentrations were observed for
arsenic (2.3 ± 0.02 μg/g) in radish, manganese (16 ± 1.3 μg/g) in salad leaves, selenium (0.2 ± 0.02 μg/g) in cabbage and
antimony (0.08 ± 0.001 μg/g) in salad leaves respectively which were also higher than those recommended by the National Environmental
Quality Control (NEQC) standards and World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the amounts of injurious arsenic (2.3 μg/g)
and selenium (0.4 μg/g) in all salad vegetables according to standard values of NEQS are two to four times higher (1.0 and
0.1 μg/g), respectively.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, M. Arif, and M. Akram
The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious
threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated
and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial
effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops
and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted
soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results
obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06)
in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06)
in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature.
Authors:S. Rahman, Matiullah, F. Malik, M. Rafique, J. Anwar, M. Ziafat, and A. Jabbar
Soil samples were collected from different localities of districts Jhelum, Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Attock, Punjab Province,
Pakistan with an aim to measure naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and fallout 137Cs radionuclide using a P-type coaxial high purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray spectrometer. Measured specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in these soil samples ranged from 26.02 ± 7.11 to 93.54 ± 8.13 Bq kg−1, 29.34 ± 2.58 to 114.41 ± 2.80 Bq kg−1 and 348.15 ± 3.20 to 752.98 ± 4.20 Bq kg−1, respectively. Activity due to 137Cs was observed in some locations which ranged from 0.4 ± 0.2 to 7.8 ± 0.3 Bq kg−1. From the measured activity concentrations, radium equivalent activity concentrations were determined followed by calculations
of mean absorbed dose rate and mean annual effective dose for the inhabitants of the studied area. The mean radium equivalent
activity, internal and external hazard indices values came out to be 179.26 ± 11.93 Bq kg−1, 0.64 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.03, respectively. Indoors and outdoor average annual effective dose values were found to be 0.42 ± 0.03
and 0.10 ± 0.01 mSv, respectively. Present data have been compared with the published data for other parts of the world and
found to be safe for public and environment.
Authors:A. Qureshi, A. Sultan, A. Rashid, M. Ali, A. Waheed, S. Manzoor, M. Baloch, Matiullah, S. Batool, and H. Khan
Mount Arafat is a sacred place for Muslims. It has been classified as a granodiorite rock which mainly consists of feldspar
and quartz, muscovite, etc. During the Hajj and Umra, Muslims visit this holly place and stay there for some time. In order
to study the geology and thermal history as well as to assess the radiological hazards due to the presence of primordial radionuclides,
systematic studies using petrographic, fission track dating and γ-spectrometric (HPGe) techniques were carried out. Our study
yielded fission track age of 9.13 ± 1.05 Ma of the Mount Arafat granodiorite. Rifting, magmatism, volcanism and sea floor
spreading that resulted in the formation of Red Sea seems may have altered the original age of the Arafat granodiorite under
study to 9.13 ± 1.05 Ma. Measured radioactivity concentrations due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 10.75 ± 3.92, 29.21 ± 4.34 and 664.49 ± 7.45 Bq kg−1, respectively. From the measured radioactivity, gamma index (Iγ) and radium equivalent (Raeq) were calculated as 0.402 and 103.23 Bq kg−1 whereas outdoor external dose (Dout) and annual effective dose (Eout) were estimated to be 40.30 nGyh−1 and 0.045 mSvy−1 respectively. All the above mentioned values are well below the recommended limits. The Mount Arafat thus does not pose any
radiological health hazard to the general public.