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Abstract

Treatment of chronic hepatitis B has changed much since the introduction of interferon. Nucleosides have come to replace interferon in some situations like decompensated states. However, there is no clear cut guideline in many fields. Even end of treatment response is low in conventional treatments. This study describes a few scenarios where difficulties were faced. Unresolved questions in the management of chronic hepatitis B involve ‘who to treat, when to treat, how to treat?’ These should be clearly addressed.

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Milled rice from nine aromatic cultivars was evaluated for physicochemical, cooking, and antioxidant properties. Physical parameters measured were milling outrun, head rice yield (HRY), and appearance (size and shape). Cooking time, water uptake ratio and elongation ratio were determined to study their cooking quality. Chemical parameters included were amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), gel consistency (GC) and alkali spreading value (ASV). Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used to study their antioxidant activity. This study revealed all rice cultivars, except Basmoti-370 and Gopalbhog, showed HRY. Besides, all rice cultivars displayed high protein content. Significant variations (P<0.05) were found in TPC and the antioxidant activities of the rice cultivars. The correlation coefficient between the TPC and the antioxidant activities was strong and statistically significant (P<0.05).

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Abstract

Fluorous multi-phase bromination reaction of alkenes could be successfully transformed to a continuous microflow system in which a fluorous polyether, Galden® HT135, is employed as a recyclable molecular bromine support. This microflow bromination of alkenes could be carried out without any temperature control or an inert gas atmosphere. The circulatory continuous microflow reaction system for bromination of cyclohexene was created which gave 8.3 g (85%) of dibromocyclohexane after continuous operation for 6 h.

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In view of the anticipated shortage of the traditional supplies of fossil fuels, there is a great deal of interest in the production of ethanol as an alternative biofuel in recent years. The main objective of this research work was to isolate and characterize stress tolerant, high potential ethanol producing yeast strains from various fruit peel. Two yeast isolates from pineapple (Pa) and orange (Or) have been isolated, characterized on the basis of morphological and physic-chemical characters and optimized on ethanol producing capability using sugarcane molasses as substrate. Ethanol production percentage was estimated by Conway method. Isolates were thermotolerant, pH tolerant, ethanol tolerant as well as osmotolerant. They were resistant to Chloramphenicol (30 μg/disc) and Nalidixic acid (30 μg/disc). The isolates showed no killer toxin activity against E. coli. The highest production capacity of the yeasts was found to be 7.39% and 5.02% for Pa and Or, respectively, at pH 5.0, 30 °C temperature in media with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 6.5% for Pa and 5.5% for Or (shaking). Addition of metal ions increased the rate of ethanol production highest to 10.61% by KH2PO4. This study revealed that indigenous yeast isolates could be used to benefit the fuel demand and industrial alcohol industries.

Open access
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Fatema Moni Chowdhury
,
Mohammed Ziaur Rahman
,
Md Murshed Hasan Sarkar
,
Fazle Rabbi
,
Sirajul Islam Khan
,
Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan
, and
Nils-Kåre Birkeland

Recently, we reported the induction of protective immunity by environmental Escherichia albertii strain DM104 against Shigella dysenteriae in guinea pig model. In this study, we assessed three different immunization routes, such as intranasal, oral, and intrarectal routes, and revealed differences in immune responses by measuring both the serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody titers. Protective efficacy of different routes of immunization was also determined by challenging immunized guinea pigs against live S. dysenteriae. It was found that intranasal immunization showed promising results in terms of antibody response and protective efficacy. All these results reconfirm our previous findings and additionally point out that the intranasal immunization of the environmental E. albertii strain DM104 in guinea pig model can be a better live vaccine candidate against shigellosis.

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Abstract  

We measured the isomeric yield ratios for the photonuclear reactions of 93Nb(γ,4n)89m,gNb and natMo(γ,xnp)95m,gNb by using the activation method. The high-purity 93Nb and natMo metallic foils in disc shape were irradiated with uncollimated bremsstrahlung beams of 50-, 60-, and 70-MeV generated from an electron linear accelerator in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The induced activities in the irradiated foils were measured by the high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry with a calibrated high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled to a PC-based 4 K multichannel analyzer. The reaction 93Nb(γ,4n)89m,gNb was studied for the first time which has no comparable literature data. The result of 95m,gNb isomeric pair was measured based on (γ,p), (γ,np), and (γ,2np) reactions which is the first measurement at the intermediate energy region of 50–70-MeV with a natMo target.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Van Nguyen
,
Duc Pham
,
Tien Kim
,
Md. Rahman
,
Kyung-Sook Kim
,
Guinyun Kim
,
Hee-Seock Lee
,
Moo-Hyun Cho
,
In Ko
,
Won Namkung
, and
Tae-Ik Ro

Abstract  

The isomeric yield ratios for the natFe(γ,xn1p)52m,gMn reactions have been measured by the activation and the γ-ray spectroscopic methods at 50-, 60-, 70-MeV, and 2.5-GeV bremsstrahlung energies. The high purity natural iron foils in disc shape were irradiated with uncollimated bremsstrahlung beams of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The induced activities in the irradiated foils were measured by the high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry with a calibrated high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. In order to improve the accuracy of the experimental results the necessary corrections were made in the gamma activity measurements and data analysis. The obtained isomeric yield ratios for the natFe(γ,xn1p)52m,gMn reactions at 50-, 60-, 70-MeV, and 2.5-GeV bremsstrahlung energies are 0.27 ± 0.03, 0.33 ± 0.04, 0.34 ± 0.04, and 1.25 ± 0.15, respectively. The present results at 50-, 60-MeV, and 2.5-GeV bremsstrahlung energies are the first measurements. We found that the isomeric yield ratio of the natFe(γ,xn1p)52m,gMn reaction depends on the incident bremsstrahlung energy and the mass difference between the product and the target nucleus when we compared the present results with other experimental data at different energies.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Md. Rahman
,
Kyung-Sook Kim
,
Manwoo Lee
,
Guinyun Kim
,
Youngdo Oh
,
Hee-Seock Lee
,
Moo-Hyun Cho
,
In Ko
,
Won Namkung
,
Van Nguyen
,
Duc Pham
,
Tien Kim
, and
Tae-Ik Ro

Abstract  

We measured isomeric-yield ratios for the 197Au(γ,n)196m,gAu reactions with bremsstrahlung energies of 50-, 60-, 70- MeV, and 2.5-GeV at the two different electron linac of the Pohang accelerator laboratory by using the activation method. The photons were produced when a pulsed electron beam hit a thin tungsten target. The well-known photoactivation method was used and hence the induced activities in the irradiated foils were measured with the high-resolution γ-ray spectrometric system consisting of lithium drifted high-purity Germanium detector and a multichannel analyzer. The measured isomeric-yield ratios for the 197Au(γ,n)196m,gAu reactions were (4.95 ± 0.51) × 10−4, (5.72 ± 0.72) × 10−4, (6.03 ± 0.50) × 10−4, and (9.27 ± 0.83) × 10−4 for 50-, 60-, 70-MeV, and 2.5-GeV bremsstrahlung energies, respectively. The present results measured with the bremsstrahlung energy higher than 60-MeV are the first measurement.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Nguyen Do
,
Pham Khue
,
Kim Thanh
,
Tran Nam
,
Md. Rahman
,
Kyung-Sook Kim
,
Manwoo Lee
,
Guinyun Kim
,
Hee-Seock Lee
,
Moo-Hyun Cho
,
In Ko
, and
Won Namkung

Abstract  

We measured the isomeric yield ratios for the 44m,gSc isomeric pairs produced from different reaction channels 45Sc(γ,n)44m,gSc and natTi(γ,xnp)44m,gSc by using the activation method and γ-ray spectroscopic methods at 50-, 60-, and 70-MeV bremsstrahlung energies. The high-purity natural Sc and Ti foils in disc shape were irradiated with uncollimated bremsstrahlung beams generated from an electron linear accelerator at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The induced activities in the irradiated foils were measured by the high-resolution γ-ray spectrometric system which consists of a high-purity Germanium detector and a multichannel analyzer. In order to improve the accuracy of the experimental results the necessary corrections were made in the γ-ray activity measurements and data analysis. The measured isomeric yield ratios for the 45Sc(γ,n)44m,gSc reaction are 0.20 ± 0.02, 0.21 ± 0.02, and 0.21 ± 0.02 and those for the natTi(γ,xnp)44m,gSc reaction are 0.063 ± 0.012, 0.079 ± 0.014, and 0.124 ± 0.022 at 50-, 60-, and 70-MeV bremsstrahlung energies, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding values found in the literature. We observed that the isomeric yield ratios for the 45Sc(γ,n)44m,gSc reaction increase rapidly with the increasing bremsstrahlung energies from the reaction threshold up to giant resonance region, and then those are almost constant in the energy range from about 30 to 2.5 GeV. The isomeric yield ratios for the natTi(γ,xnp)44m,gSc reaction increase with increasing bremsstrahlung energies in a wide range of bremsstrahlung energies from 50 to 2.5 GeV.

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