Authors:Petra Varró, Melinda Béldi, Melinda Kovács, and Ildikó Világi
T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.
Authors:B. Fazekas, Andrea Tar, and Melinda Kovács
The ochratoxin A (OTA) content of urine samples from 88 healthy humans living at five settlements in three counties of Hungary was determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). OTA was detected in 61% of the samples in an average concentration of 0.013 ng/ml (range: 0.006-0.065 ng/ml). OTA concentrations measured in urine samples from men and women were not significantly different. The OTA concentration of samples from Heves county was significantly (t-test; p < 0.003) higher than that of samples from Hajdú-Bihar and Somogy counties. The regional differences in OTA concentration of urine samples indicate regional differences in the OTA exposure of the human population. Further studies are necessary to determine the cause of the regional differences in the OTA intake. The studies allow us to conclude that the OTA intake of the majority of the Hungarian population is low (< 1 ng/kg of body weight per day) but a certain part of the rural population may take up higher levels of OTA.
Authors:Bence Somoskői, Melinda Kovács, and Sándor Cseh
The mycotoxin T-2 has many harmful effects on mammalian cells and reproductive functions. In the present study, the in vitro effect of T-2 toxin on mouse blastocysts was examined. Embryos were cultured in media supplemented with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 ng/ml T-2. Different exposure times were applied [96 h (treatment I) or 24 h following 72 h in toxin-free media (treatment II)]. Blastomere number, nuclear chromatin status and blastocoel formation were investigated in blastocysts. Our data show that the effect of T-2 toxin may vary depending on the stage of the embryo at the start of exposure. At 96 h of exposure, the blastocysts had blastomeres with normal chromatin quality but their developmental potential was decreased. After 24 h of exposure applied following a 72-h culture, blastomeres had a higher level of chromatin damage, although their developmental potential was the same as in the control embryos. In both cases, decreased mitotic rate was found, which resulted in decreased blastomere number even at low toxin concentration.
The influence of atrophic rhinitis (AR) and pneumonia on growth performance was assessed in a conventional farrow-to-finish pig farm affected by both diseases. All tested pigs (n = 138) were individually weighed at birth, at weaning, at moving to the growing/finishing unit, and at slaughtering. The extent (grade) of turbinate atrophy and lung consolidation attributable to pneumonia was determined in each pig at slaughter. A negative correlation was found between birth weight and the prevalence of nasal lesions at slaughter, suggesting that pigs born with smaller weight may be more susceptible to AR. The growth performance of the pigs also showed a negative correlation with the degree of turbinate atrophy. In the nursery period, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs with moderate/severe turbinate atrophy was 13.3% lower than that of animals with healthy snouts. In the finishing period, pigs with mild AR lesions had an ADG reduction of 6.2%, while pigs with severe AR lesions had a significant, 9.4% reduction in ADG as compared to the AR-free pigs. The extent of weight gain reduction over the whole life cycle was very similar (approximately 6%) in the pigs having either AR or pneumonia alone. In those pigs where both respiratory diseases were present, their effects seemed to be added up (11.5%); however, nasal lesion scores and percentage of lung consolidation did not show statistically apparent interactive effects on growth performance.
Authors:János Boros, Zsuzsanna Kovács, Dániel Patyi, Melinda Szucsáki, and Katalin Kovács
Háttér és célkitűzések
Magyarországon elsőként került alkalmazásra a Canter és Youngs-féle interjú módszer (Canter és Youngs, 2012), amelynek célja bűnelkövetői típusokat azonosítani a bűncselekmény-narratíva alapján. Négy bűnelkövetői típusról beszélhetünk: a Profi hideg fejjel hajtja végre a bűncselekményt, a Bosszúálló úgy tekint önmagára, mint aki küldetést teljesít, a Tragikus hős nem tudja elkerülni az események kedvezőtlen kibontakozását, az Áldozat pedig környezetét hibáztatja a bűncselekmény kapcsán.
101 fogvatartott vett részt a vizsgálatban Magyarország három börtönéből. A Canter-Youngs Narrative Experience interjú és a hozzá tartozó kérdőívcsomag került rögzítésre. Az interjúk szövegét három kódoló értékelte.
Mind a négy elkövetői típus azonosítható a vizsgálatban részt vevő bűnözők között: a megoszlásuk azonban nem egyenletes, a Profik száma lényegesen nagyobb volt, mint a többi típus képviselőié.
A Profik jelentős többsége a mintában tükrözi a hazai bűnelkövetői populáció jellemzőit: az ún. szubkulturális bűnözők érzelmi és viselkedési mintázata azonosítható náluk. Eredményeink illeszkednek a brit kutatók eredményeihez, ezért a vizsgálat további folytatása és nemzetközi kibővítése is javasolt.
Authors:Tibor Szili-Kovács, Rebeka Szabó, Melinda Halassy, and Katalin Török
szántók természetes regenerációjának felgyorsítása érdekében különböző
szénforrásokat alkalmaztunk a talaj-nitrogén mikrobiális immobilizációjának
elősegítésére. Azt vizsgáltuk, hogy a kezelések hatással vannak-e a talajok
mikrobiális biomasszájára és a talaj felvehető N-tartalmának alakulására. A
Kiskunsági Nemzeti Park te__
Authors:B. Fazekas, A. K. Tar, and Melinda Zomborszky-Kovács
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by mould fungi belonging to several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. It is formed during the storage of cereal grains and other plant-derived products. OTA ingested by humans and animals with the food or feed may exert deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ochratoxin contamination of the most important potential sources of OTA. The OTA content of cereal samples for human consumption (36 baking wheat, 16 wheat flour and 6 maize coarse meal samples) and feed grain samples (30 feeding wheat, 32 feeding maize and 20 feeding barley samples) collected in the mid-phase or at the end of the storage period and of 50 commercial coffee samples was determined. The analyses were performed by immunoaffinity column - high-performance liquid chromatography (IAC-HPLC). The limit of detection of the method was 0.1 ng/g. Of the wheat samples intended for human consumption, 8.3% contained OTA at 0.29 ng/g on the average (OTA ranges: 0.12-0.5 ng/g; Table 2). The OTA contamination of wheat flour and maize meal samples for human consumption was similar to that of the baking wheat samples. OTA contamination was found in 26.7% of the feeding wheat, 15.6% of the feeding maize and 35% of the feeding barley samples. The average values and the ranges of OTA levels found in the above samples were 12.2 and 0.3-62.8 ng/g, 4.9 and 1.9-8.3 ng/g, and 72 and 0.14-212 ng/g, respectively (Table 3). Sixty-six percent of the coffee samples were contaminated with OA (average level: 0.57 ng/g, ranges: 0.17-1.3 ng/g; Table 4). OTA contamination of baking wheat samples was found to be relatively low, presumably as a result of the favourable weather at harvest and the optimal storage conditions. Calculations made on the basis of the obtained results show that the daily OTA intake of an adult human from edible cereals is only 6.7 ng, while the amount taken up with coffee is 4.1 ng daily. The high prevalence and high levels of OTA contamination in feed grains can be explained by the unfavourable storage conditions, and this finding suggests that OA-related health problems may arise in animals, and that foods of animal origin may be contaminated with this mycotoxin.
Authors:Melinda Zomborszky-Kovács, Tünde Gyarmati, Zs. Szendrő, and et al.
Anatomical and physiological properties of the digestive tract were examined and compared in young rabbits nursed either by one (SS) or by two does (DD) daily up to the age of 35 days. At the age of 23, 30, 37 and 44 days, 8 young per treatment were euthanised. Double suckling and the subsequent higher level of solid feed intake after weaning were found to exert a stronger influence on the weight of the entire gastrointestinal tract and that of its individual parts (the stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon) than on its length. The quantity of the gastric content was found to rise with advancing age in both groups (from 36 to 70g and from 37.5 to 79g). In both groups the pH of the stomach was higher during the suckling period (4.5-5.3) than subsequent to weaning (1.6-2.4). The quantity of the caecal content also increased with age (from 4 or 8g), but on the 37th day significantly higher quantities of caecal content were recorded in DD rabbits (50.5g compared with 35g). The pH of the caecal content decreased more slowly from an initial high value (6.0 and 6.5 in SS and DD rabbits, respectively), and by the 37th day had settled at a low value (5.7-5.8) in both groups. The dry matter content of the caecal content decreased from 270-273g to 188-207g in both groups. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA) and acetic acid (C2) concentration, which amounted to 66-88% of tVFA, rose; in SS rabbits they were at higher levels by the 30th day (53.6 and 42.2mmol/L, respectively), and remained at an increased level until the 44th day (P<0.05). The ratio of C3:C4 was high on the 23rd day (2.5 and 2.4), but dropped at the age of 30 days (0.5 in SS and 1.7 in DD, P<0.05) and, further, by the 37th day (0.2 in SS). In SS rabbits coliform count proved significantly lower (105) on the 23rd day than in DD rabbits (106). By the 37th day this count had decreased in both groups and subsequently remained at a low level (<104). By the 23rd day Bacteroides were present in large quantities (108) in the caecum and showed no change with advancing age or feeding regime.
Authors:T. Magyar, F. Kovács, T. Donkó, H. Bíró, R. Romvári, Melinda Kovács, and I. Repa
Computed tomography (CT), a non-invasive visualisation technique was applied for imaging the bony structures of the nasal cavity of pigs, and compared to the traditional scoring system of turbinate atrophy in swine. Twenty-three 27-week-old pigs representing various stages of turbinate atrophy were used. Nasal structures were visually scored on CT scans and transversal cuts of the noses at the level of the first upper premolar teeth using the same scoring system in both cases. A tissue/air area ratio was also determined based on density differences. A highly significant correlation was found between visual scoring of CT images and transversal cuts of pig noses (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) as well as between visual scoring of CT images and tissue/air area ratio determination (r = -0.82, p < 0.0001).