Highly oriented single crystal antimony nanowire arrays have been synthesized within anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template
by pulsed electrodeposition. Thermal behavior and oxidation analysis of the antimony nanowires have been investigated by means
of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in Ar and air atmosphere, respectively. Compared to bulk antimony,
the antimony nanowires exhibit a lower sublimation temperature at 496.4°C. Evident oxidation of the Sb nanowires occurs at
429.8°C in air atmosphere and α-Sb2O4 nanowires have been obtained as the oxidation product. The results indicate that the sublimation and the oxidation of the
antimony nanowires in the AAO template is a slow multi-step process. The present results are of relevance when processing
antimony nanowries for thermoelectric applications at high temperatures.
A computerized adiabatic calorimeter for heat capacity measurements in the temperature range 80–400 K has been constructed.
The sample cell of the calorimeter, which is about 50 cm3 in internal volume, is equipped with a platinum resistance thermometer and surrounded by an adiabatic shield and a guard
shield. Two sets of 6-junction chromel-copel thermocouples are mounted between the cell and the shields to indicate the temperature
differences between them. The adiabatic conditions of the cell are automatically controlled by two sets of temperature controller.
The reliability of the calorimeter was verified through heat capacity measurements on the standard reference material α-Al2O3. The results agreed well with those of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS): within 0.2% throughout the whole temperature
region. The heat capacities of high-purity graphite and polystyrene were precisely measured in the interval 260–370 K by using
the above-mentioned calorimeter. The results were tabulated and plotted and the thermal behavior of the two materials was
discussed in detail. Polynomial expressions for calculation of the heat capacities of the two substances are presented.
A new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of astragaloside IV and formononetin in Radix Astragali. Samples were employed to degrease the materials by petroleum ether (boiling point: 60–90°C) and extracted by methanol, and then were alkalized and extracted with n-butanol saturated with water. Separation was achieved on HPTLC plates using petroleum ether (boiling point: 60–90°C) and n-butanol saturated with water-glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase, the results of which were compared with HPLC. The well-resolved peaks for astragaloside IV and formononetin were observed at RF values 0.43 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.02, respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 1.01–10.10 μg μL−1 with good correlation coefficient for astragaloside IV and formononetin. The method was validated for linearity, precision, reproducibility, accuracy, and limits of detection and quantification. This simple, rapid, sensitive, economic, and reliable HPTLC method is suitable for the routine quantitative analysis and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) such as Radix Astragali, which can be applied for the quality control of saponins and flavonoids in other plants or extracts.
The newly emerged chromatographic fngerprint analysis represents a rational approach assessment of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and its preparations. In the present paper, a quick and reliable analytical method was developed for the quality assessment of QiYi capsules (QY) using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with the reference of Tripterygium wilfordii. The unique properties of the HPTLC fngerprint were validated by analyzing 10 batches of QY samples. The 9 common peaks of the HPTLC images of QY and the different RF and peak area ratios of the chemical distribution could directly discern the stability by comparison of 10 samples, and also, the 9 common peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of QY; the similarities of 10 batches of QY were more than 0.960, which indicated a standardized consistency and reliable quality of QY. Therefore, the newly developed HPTLC fngerprint method provided an easy way for sample characterization and differentiation; it allowed for the quality assessment of QY capsules with the reference of T. wilfordii.
Renal injury is reported to have a high mortality rate. Additionally, there are several limitations to current conventional treatments that are used to manage it. This study evaluated the protective effect of hesperidin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced kidney injury in rats. Renal injury was induced by generating I/R in kidney tissues. Rats were then treated with hesperidin at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg intravenously 1 day after surgery for a period of 14 days. The effect of hesperidin on renal function, serum mediators of inflammation, and levels of oxidative stress in renal tissues were observed in rat kidney tissues after I/R-induced kidney injury. Moreover, protein expression and mRNA expression in kidney tissues were determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was done for histopathological observation of kidney tissues. The data suggest that the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the serum of hesperidin-treated rats were lower than in the I/R group. Treatment with hesperidin also ameliorated the altered level of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in I/R-induced renal-injured rats. The expression of p-IκBα, caspase-3, NF-κB p65, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) protein, TLR-4 mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly reduced in the renal tissues of hesperidin-treated rats. Histopathological findings also revealed that treatment with hesperidin attenuated the renal injury in I/R kidney-injured rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that hesperidin protects against renal injury induced by I/R by involving TLR-4/NF-κB/iNOS signaling.
Theories posit that the combination of external (e.g. cue exposure) and internal (e.g. attention biases) factors contributes to the development of game craving. Nevertheless, whether different components of attentional biases (namely, engagement bias and disengagement bias) play separate roles on game craving has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine the associations between two facets of attentional biases and game craving dynamics under a daily life setting.
Participants (110 regular internet game players) accomplished the modified attentional assessment task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to collect data on their momentary game craving and occurrence of game-related events at five different time points per day.
We found that occurrence of game-related events was significantly associated with increased game craving. Moreover, attentional disengagement bias, instead of engagement bias, bore on the occasional level variations of game craving as moderating variables. Specifically, attentional disengagement bias, not engagement bias, was associated with a greater increase in game craving immediately after encountering a game-related event; however, neither attentional engagement bias nor disengagement bias was associated with the craving maintenance after a relatively long period.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study highlights the specific attentional processes involved in game craving dynamics, which could be crucial for designing interventions for attentional bias modification (ABM) in Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) populations.
The importance of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis has led to develop new imaging tracers to understand angiogenic
vasculature. Based on the previous study, we further focused on the tumor molecular imaging application of the novel peptide
Arginine-Arginine-Leucine (Tyr-Cys-Gly-Gly-Arg-Arg-Leu-Gly-Gly-Cys, tRRL) in this study. The cytotoxicity of raioiodinated
tRRL (131I-tRRL) in HepG2 cells was assessed by tested cell viability using kit. tRRL was conjugated with fluorescein FITC to observe
its binding with tumor cells and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) in vitro. Whole body SPECT imaging of varied tumors
xenograftes was performed after intravenous injection of 131I-tRRL for 24 h in BALB/c nude mice. Compared with negative control PBS, small peptide tRRL was of non-cytotoxicity. 131I-tRRL could lead to significant cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells when the radioactivity was greater than 370 kBq. In vitro binding
experiment and cellular uptake results revealed that tRRL could adhere to tumor cells besides tumor derived endothelial cells.
In vivo SPECT imaging, 131I-tRRL mainly accumulated in various tumor tissues, including melanoma, liver cancer and lung cancer bearing mice. In breast
cancer xenografte imaging, the tumor has no significant radionuclide accumulation at 24 h after injected of 131I-tRRL. Radioiodinated tRRL offers a noninvasive nuclear imaging method for functional molecular imaging of tumors, and may
be a promising candidate carrier for tumor targeted therapy.
The heat capacities (Cp,m) of 2-amino-5-methylpyridine (AMP) were measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range
from 80 to 398 K. A solid-liquid phase transition was found in the range from 336 to 351 K with the peak heat capacity at
350.426 K. The melting temperature (Tm), the molar enthalpy (ΔfusHm0), and the molar entropy (ΔfusSm0) of fusion were determined to be 350.431±0.018 K, 18.108 kJ mol−1 and 51.676 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. The mole fraction purity of the sample used was determined to be 0.99734 through the Van’t Hoff equation.
The thermodynamic functions (HT-H298.15 and ST-S298.15) were calculated. The molar energy of combustion and the standard molar enthalpy of combustion were determined, ΔUc(C6H8N2,cr)= −3500.15±1.51 kJ mol−1 and ΔcHm0 (C6H8N2,cr)= −3502.64±1.51 kJ mol−1, by means of a precision oxygen-bomb combustion calorimeter at T=298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the crystalline compound was derived, ΔrHm0 (C6H8N2,cr)= −1.74±0.57 kJ mol−1.
On the basis of the theory of thermokinetics proposed in the literature, a novel thermokinetic method for determination of the reaction rate, the characteristic parameter method, is proposed in this paper. Mathematical models were established to determine the kinetic parameters and rate constants. In order to test the validity of this method, the saponifications of ethyl benzoate, ethyl acetate and ethyl propionate, and the formation of hexamethylenetetramine were studied with this method. The rate constants calculated with this method are in agreement with those in the literature, and the characteristic parameter method is therefore believed to be correct.In the light of the characteristic parameter method, we have developed further two thermo-kinetic methods, the thermoanalytical single and multi-curve methods, which are convenient for simultaneous determination of the reaction order and the rate constant. The reaction orders and rate constants of the saponifications of ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate and the ring-opening reaction of epichlorohydrin with hydrobromic acid were determined with these methods, and their validity was verified by the experimental results.