A kutatást régóta foglalkoztatja a tévesen Aristotelésnek tulajdonított De mundo szerzősége. A cikk amellett érvel, hogy téves kiindulópont az anonim szerzőt valamelyik filozófiai iskolában keresni, mivel a mű csakis egy rétoriskolában jöhetett létre. Nem filozófiai, hanem retorikai mű. A későbbi korokból ismert nézet, miszerint Aristotelés írt ezoterikus és exoterikus műveket, a rétoriskolai hagyomány fényében átértelmezendő: a későbbi hagyományban exoterikus műveknek tartott könyvek a retorikai hagyományban keletkeztek, de az utókor Aristotelésnek tulajdonította őket. Ilyen művek a De mundo, a Secreta secretorum stb.
The Aristotelian tradition knows the dichotomy of his works into exoteric and esoteric groups. The interpretation of the two terms, however, changed in the course of time. According to the later, perhaps Hellenistic interpretation of the terms, the group of “exoteric” works included all the works which have been written in schools of rhetoric, and later ascribed to Aristotle. The well-known treatise De mundo should not be considered as a genuin work of school-philosophy, because it belongs to Pseudo-Aristotle’s works written in a school of rhetoric and ranged amond his “exoteric” works.
ʿAmmār al-Baṣrī was an outstanding representative of the Nestorian theology in the Christian-Moslem disputes of the ninth century. As a Christian writer who knew both Greek and Syriac, he continued the traditions of the Eastern (Greek) church in every respect, including the way of presentation and argumentation. Relying on his example the author tries to point out that the Christian writers of the early Islamic centuries represented the traditional Greek rhetoric culture in Islamic surroundings.
The paper examines a fragment of Xenocrates on definition preserved by Alfarabi. Proving that the exposition of Plato’s and Aristotle’s definitions in the same fragment reflect the views of the philosophers referred to in late antique wording the author accepts Alfarabi’s report as reliable and authentic. Further comparison of Alfarabi’s passage with late antique logical views results in the statement that Xenocrates’ definition was connected with the emerging doctrine of relational syllogisms. Alfarabi's fragment exposition of Xenocrates’ hitherto unknown teaching is, consequently, exposed as part of the late antique philosophical tradition.
In the article the manuscript of the first Arabic prose work is being
investigated. The author comes to the conclusion that it was written originally
in Greek by somebody who was attached to one of the rhetoric schools in Syria.
The Greek work contains the alleged correspondence between Aristotle and
Alexander the Great. The Greek version of the novel in letters must be dated
back to the sixth century A.D., thus the work is one of the last documents of
the classical Greek literature. Through this novel one can get a better insight
into the activity of the schools of rhetoric in the late Antiquity and the
question of Pseudo-Aristotle's treatises.
Maxims played an important role in the Greek tradition of
rhetoric, and collections of maxims arranged alphabetically or according to
subject-matter represent a well-established literary genre both in the field of
belles-lettres and sciences. Collections of maxims served well-defined
purposes: they were used in schools, or they were read by people who were
interested in wisdom, but did not have the necessary p_r
In this paper the meaning of some key-terms of the Neo-platonic aesthetic theory are investigated:
mimesis, logos, erôs, theôrein/theôria
. These terms are examined in Platonic (Alcinous) as well as in Neo-platonic (Plotinus, Proclus) context of emanation. After having investigated their more or less similar views the author tries to give an explanation to the basic attitude of the Neo-platonic philosophers towards the essence of arts.
The article deals with the problem of a Greek collection of maxims in Arabic translation. The collection under examination has two special features among the many similar collections: 1) In this gnomology each one of the maxims ascribed to Aristotle is compared with one of the maxims abstracted from the poems of al-Mutanabbi’ (915–965), who lived in the tenth century. 2) The maxims deal with some traditional concepts of the late antique moral teaching usual in other collections (desire, pleasure, wisdom, etc.), but their negative treatment (e.g. that of desire and pleasure) is turned into a positive one many times in our collection. The maxims quoted in this collection cannot be ascribed to Aristotle, but they are not alien to the Aristotelian tradition. This collection together with other ones seems to prove that maxims played a much more important role in the late antique literature, than it used to be thought earlier.
Analogy was a basic means of the interpretation of reality in late antique schools of philosophy, and among them in the Stoic philosophy, too. It was, at the same time, also a heuristic and didactic method. It played an important role in the philosophers’ activity of explaining the world, and in schoolbooks, like that of Cornutus, in giving a world-view. The analogical method served as a basis for the wellknown etymological explanations, too, and etymological explanation in turn played an important role in discovering the basic knowledge of the world, and in later times, it received a rhetoric justification among the common places of rhetoric. In this way it became part of rhetoric argumentation.