Finite element modeling is employed to study the behavior and characteristics of flush end plate, bolted connections. To investigate the failure mechanism and non-linear behavior of the connections a 3D model is created and analyzed using non-linear material models and contacts between components of the connection. The paper shows the good agreement between the experimental and numerical results.
In traditional orthotropic plates the trapezoidal longitudinal stiffener is welded to the transverse girder web and to the bottom flange of the main girder. In a recently developed orthotropic plate the stiffeners and the transverse girder web are not connected. This approach provides for a significant reduction in the amount of flame cutting and welding, but more importantly there is no longer a need to assess the fatigue condition of the weld between the stiffener and the web. On the other hand, the potential for local buckling of the free edge of the web near the trapezoidal stiffener must be considered.
Before the 1960s the ductility notion was used only for characterizing the material behaviour. After Baker's research on plastic design, this concept has been extended to the structural level. This paper provides a general overview of ductility. The paper examines the behaviour of material ductility, cross-section ductility and member ductility separately, then it studies how the sum of the effects of all these ductilities affect the structural ductility. The effect of the different ductilities can be built into the structural behaviour through an interactive hinge model. The model of the interactive hinge also takes into consideration the effects of the residual stresses and deformations, the strain hardening and the plate buckling.
The design practice of structural engineering is currently undergoing a considerable amount of fundamental change. For example, in recent years, limit state design has been introduced in Europe for the design of steel structures, and load and resistance factor design has become mandatory in the United States. However, other more dramatic changes in the practice of structural steel design attributable to a shift in the design philosophy as evidenced by the introduction of numerous new codes and standards that now require design for stability and ductility response. This paper discusses the yield mechanism forms of different solutions of the connections of trapezoidal stiffeners and cross beams for orthotropic steel plates.
According to the different designs of steel frames the connections can be characterized by different elastic, plastic and ductile behaviors. The most well-known connection type is the end-plate, bolted connection when a beam connected to the strong axis of a column. The design and analysis of this type of connection is discussed in detail in the EC3 Standard (1.8). On the other hand in the case of steel frames it is a common solution to connect a beam to the weak axis of a column or 3D connections and unfortunately current design standards do not contain solutions for these cases.During the current research project the elastic, plastic and ductile behaviour of beams connected to the strong and weak axis of columns have been investigated. The experimental program have investigated three connections: Type A is a connection without column web stiffeners, Type B is a connection with column web stiffeners and Type C is a connection using U beams to connect beams to the column.
Egy kapcsolat jellemzői az ellenállása, merevsége és elfordulási képessége. Ezeket a jellemzőket meghatározhatjuk kísérlet során, numerikus számítások útján és analitikus számítási eljárással. Az Eurocode 3 komponens módszere analitikus számítási eljárást mutat be főirányú bekötések (amikor az oszlop a főtengelye körül van hajlítva) jellemzőinek számítására, azonban olyan esetekre, amikor a bekötött gerendából származó nyomaték az oszlopot a mellék tengelye körül is hajlítja (mellékirányú és térbeli bekötés) a komponens módszer nem ad megoldást. Jelen tanulmány az Eurocode komponens módszerén alapuló analitikus számítási eljárást mutat be mellékirányú és térbeli kapcsolatok számítására.
This study introduces the old design methods of eye-bars of chain bridges and compares their results to the results of numerical calculations. The failure modes of four eye-bars with different head geometries have been investigated through experiments and numerical simulations, and the effect of the geometrical build-up of the chain heads on the failure mode is provided as well. Finally as a result of numerical calculations the elastic and plastic stress distribution in the eye-bar is shown as well.
It has long been recognized that the contribution of bracing, cladding may be included in the design of steel frameworks. On the other hand, — due to the very sophisticated interaction between frames and bracing, cladding — the theoretical solutions need experimental, numerical verification.The Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Budapest in 1976–81 carried out theoretical and experimental investigations on full-scale simple elastic-plastic frames. Our goal is to help the design and refurbishment of structures by comparing the experimental results to the results of the virtual structure, modeled by a finite element software.This time we focus on a horizontally displaced building section consisting of three frames, that was retracted with the use of the cross bracing of the end-frame. Some problems of modeling will be presented.
Increasing the stiffness of some frames of a structure and making the frames work together by using diaphragms is an alternative way of strengthening steel frameworks. The diaphragm effect of the cladding is well known, but due to the very sophisticated interaction among frames and the cladding, the theoretical solutions need experimental verification.The Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Budapest carried out experimental investigations on full-scale simple elastic-plastic frames in 1976. As a part of it, the effect of cladding was studied. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental results to the results calculated according to the stressed skin diaphragm design method. As the examined structural layouts were different, virtual structures were used to make the results comparable.