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Abstract  

Since the pioneering studies of Carpenter & Narin (1983), and Narin & Noma (1985), non-patent references (NPRs) in patent documents have been widely used as an indicator of science-technology links. Meyer (2000) reviewed previous work in the patent citation literature and found that citation links between patents and papers are, if not explicitly, at least implicitly viewed as an indication of the contribution of science to technology. Using a sample of 850 patents of New Zealand companies granted by the USPTO between 1976 and 2004, we find evidence of systematic noise in NPR data. We suggest that future research should pay close attention to heterogeneity among countries, and that one should demonstrate more caution in applying and interpreting results based on the NPR methodology.

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Abstract  

Nanoscience and technology (NST) is a young scientific and technological field that has generated great worldwide interest in the past two decades. Previous bibliometric analyses have unmistakably demonstrated the remarkable growth of the global NST literature. While almost all published research articles in NST are in English, increasingly a larger share of NST publications is published in the Chinese language. Perplexingly, Chinese is the only language — apart from English — that displays an ascendant trend in the NST literature. In this brief note, we explore and evaluate three arguments that could explain this phenomenon: coverage bias, language preference, and community formation.

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Abstract  

The enthalpies of dilution of matrine (MAT) in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions were determined by isothermal titration microcalorimetry at 298.15 K, and the corresponding homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients were calculated according to the modified McMillan–Mayer model. The values of enthalpic pair-wise interaction coefficients, h 2, are all positive and become more positive with increasing concentration of sodium chloride.

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Abstract

Tert-butyl peroxide (TBPO), is a typical organic peroxides (OPs), which is widely applied as initiator in poly-glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) reaction, and is employed to provide a free-radical in frontal polymerization, and which has also caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions worldwide. To find an unknown and insufficient hazard information for an energetic material, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) were employed to detect the fundamental thermokinetic parameters involving the exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), temperature rise rate (dT · dt −1), time to maximum rate under adiabatic situation (TMRad), pressure rise rate (dP · dt −1), and maximum pressure (P max), etc. The T 0 was calculated to be 130 °C using DSC and VSP2. Activation energy (E a) of TBPO was evaluated to be 136 kJ mol−1 by VSP2. In view of the loss prevention, calorimetric applications and model evaluation to integrate thermal hazard development are adequate means for inherently safer design.

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Abstract

The thermokinetic parameters were investigated for cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), and tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB) by non-isothermal kinetic model and isothermal kinetic model by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor III (TAM III), respectively. The objective was to investigate the activation energy (E a) of CHP, DTBP, and TBPB applied non-isothermal well-known kinetic equation to evaluate the thermokinetic parameters by DSC. We employed TAM III to assess the thermokinetic parameters of three liquid organic peroxides, obtained thermal runaway data, and then used the Arrhenius plot to obtain the E a of liquid organic peroxides at various isothermal temperatures. In contrast, the results of non-isothermal kinetic algorithm and isothermal kinetic algorithm were acquired from a highly accurate procedure for receiving information on thermal decomposition characteristics and reaction hazard.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Su Lian-Lin, Cheng Xue, Ding Xi-Yan, Mao Chun-Qin, Lu Tu-Lin, Hao Min, Li Ping, and Qin Sirui

In this research study, a rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS/MS) method was established and validated, in regard to the simultaneous quantification of five sedative and hypnotic lignans (schisandrin, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, deoxyschisandrin, and schisandrin B) in various tissues of rats (including heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney). The purpose of the study was to clarify the tissue distribution of the total lignans extract of Schisandra chinensis (SC). Then, the analytes were separated on a MERCK Purospher STAR LP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% (v/v) formic acid acetonitrile, and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid water, and a flow rate of 1 mL/min. All of the calibration curves of the five components showed good linearity (r > 0.9950), with ranges of 4.8 to 1920 ng/mL for analytes. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD] %) were within 13.76% for all of the analytes. The average recoveries of the five analytes were greater than 85.23%, and the mean value of the matrix effect ranged from 82.3% to 93.4%. The five analytes were confirmed to be stable during the storage, preparation, and analytic procedures. The major target tissues of the total lignans extract of the SC in the rats were the livers and kidneys.

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Abstract  

A rapid separation system based on SISAK technique was established to isolate 142La successfully from fission products. SISAK technique is often applied in the separation of nuclides with the half-life of seconds or minutes. Here it was used to separate the parent nuclide of 142La, which the half-life is in the magnitude of several seconds. According to the separation procedure designed in the paper, the activity of 142La acquired is more than 104 Bq and the decontamination factors for most γ-emitters are higher than 103.

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Abstract  

Laser-induced optical fiber fluorimetry has been first used to analyze uranium(VI) concentration in the kinetic studies on the extraction of uranium(VI) between 0.5 mol/l H3PO4 solution and HDEHP-cyclohexane system with a Lewis cell. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and concentrations of uranium(VI) and HDEHP on the rate of extraction were examined. These data show that the extraction rate of uranium(VI) in this system is controlled by the chemical reaction at the interface. The rate equations and the rate constants of forward and reverse extraction are obtained. The mechanism of the extraction is discussed.

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Abstract  

With 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 3-(nodo-carboranyl) propionate (TCP) as a new potential bi-functional linker, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conjugated with 211At, and the conjugated model protein (211At-TCP-BSA) was preliminarily evaluated in vitro and in vivo by comparison with 211At-SAB-BSA and 211At-SAPC-BSA, which conjugated with 211At via aryl derivatives ATE (N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate) or SPC (N-succinimidyl 5-(tributylstannyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylate). The radiolabeled intermediate 211At-TCP was coupled to BSA in yields ranging from 35 to 45% with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. The conjugated 211At-TCP-BSA exhibited considerable stability in vitro in 0.1 mol/L PBS (pH 7.6) at room temperature (RT), similar to 211At-SAPC-BSA and 211At-SAB-BSA. Biodistribution of the 211At conjugated protein was investigated in NIH strain mice by I.V injection. The results showed that 211At-TCP-BSA was constantly stable in vivo as well as in vitro, but more stable than 211At-SAPC-BSA and 211At-SAB-BSA. These results implied that radioastatinated carboranes based on B–At bonds are higher stability than radioastatinated aryl derivatives based on C–At to in vivo deastatination. In other word, TCP should be a promising bi-functional linker for 211At conjugation of proteins or antibodies.

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