This study examines translatological dictionaries from the perspective of text linguistics with a discussion of the close relationship between translatological dictionary studies and text linguistics. This is done to promote translatological dictionary studies and further the development of translation studies. The study demonstrates the textual and extra-textual constraints on the research and compilation of translatological dictionaries by discussing how seven criteria of textuality can be integrated into translatological dictionary studies. The study discusses the following three topics: (1) an understanding of the translatological dictionary and its research methodologies; (2) theoretical basis and significance of the translatological dictionary as text; and (3) the integration of the seven criteria of textuality into translatological dictionary studies.
Corruption is a critical social and ethical problem that can impede the economic growth of a country or even ruin a country. In addition, the importance of the sovereign rating of a country cannot be underestimated. A change in the sovereign rating of a country can affect its borrowing capacity. Using members of the United Nations from 1995 to 2012 as the research sample, this study investigated the influence of national leader change on corruption and sovereign rating by analyzing one year after the change in national leadership. The results showed that national leader change exerted a significant, positive effect on the degree of corruption and the sovereign rating one year after the change in national leadership. By including national characteristics, this study found that for countries that have adopted the semipresidential system, national leader change had a significant, negative effect on the degree of corruption and the sovereign rating. For extreme human development countries, national leader change had a significant, negative effect on the degree of corruption but did not significantly affect the sovereign rating. The results of this study can serve as a reference for investors engaged in international investment decision-making.
Authors:Kun Wu, Min-Min Shen, Yuan Hu, Weiyi Xing and Xin Wang
The morphology, thermal degradation, and flame retardancy of epoxy (EP) composites containing microcrystalline cellulose whisker (MCW) and microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MFAPP) were investigated using optical microscopy, limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94, thermogravimetry (TG), microscale combustion calorimeter, and TG-FTIR. EP/MFAPP/MCW composites can pass V-0 in UL-94 test at 6 wt% loading, and its peak heat release rate decreases when compared with EP and EP/MFAPP. The reason is that the presence of MCW strengthens the charring capacity of EP composites in a fire. The results of TG and TG-FTIR show that at low temperature, MFAPP stimulates the dehydration of MCW and EP, and produces gas which is helpful for the formation of an intumescent char. Moreover, the residue at high temperature does not release any flammable gas and is a good insulation layer on the surface of the sample, which protects the underlying material in a fire.
Authors:Guisun Zhuang, Yuandi Cheng, Mingguang Tan, Yinson Wang and Min Zhi
24 male autopsy cases aged 35–60 years have been collected from Shanghai China to study the relationships between human hair and internal tissues. Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analyzed. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) based on a simple group extraction scheme was used for measuring the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn. Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate Zn(DDC)2 and methly isobutyl ketone-iodide have been chosen as reagent. Trace element of Se was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A SLOWPOKE reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 8·1011 n·cm–2·s–1 and a swimming pool type reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 1·1013 n·cm–2·s–1 were used for short and long irradiation of samples, respectively. The reliability of methods has been checked by analyzing biological standard reference materials Horse Kidney (IAEA H8), Tomato Leaves (NBS 1573) and Human Hair (NIES-5). The analytical results show that toxic elements As, Cd and Hg exist in a larger individual variability than the essential elements of Cu, Se and Zn for each tissue. A linear regression analysis related to the six elements of primary interest for the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) has been done by a computer program for each pair of hair-tissue. A positive correlation is found between concentration of As in hair and kidney-cortex, the correlation coefficient r is 0.751 (p<0.01). Positive correlations between concentration of Se in hair and liver, kidney-cortex and lung are also observed in this study. It shows that the elements As and Se in hair may be useful indicators for assessing certain internal tissues of normal persons. A comparison of Cd concentration in lung shows a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. A significant correlation between element Cd and Zn in kidney-cortex is also presented in this paper.
Authors:Wang Yinsong, Zhuang Guisun, Tan Mingguang, Zhi Min and Cheng Yuandi
Twenty four male autopsies were obtained from Shanghai, China. The samples of liver, lung, kidney cortex, brain and scalp hair were collected from the autopsies. The elements As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Se and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The present study shows the distribution of the elements in different tissues and provides the element level for normal persons in the local area. In general, the results are comparable with those of other countries.
Authors:Liqin Liu, Guangrong Zhong, Yaqian Wei, Min Zhang and Xuebin Wang
A conjugate of 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) with aminomethylenediphosphonic acid (AMDP) was synthesized through
a multiple-step reaction. HYNIC–AMDP could be labeled easily and efficiently with 99mTc using N-(2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)glycine (tricine) as coligand to form the 99mTc–HYNIC–AMDP complex in high yield (> 95%). Its partition coefficient indicated that it was a good hydrophilic complex. The
biodistribution studies of 99mTc–HYNIC–AMDP in normal ICR mice showed that this complex had high bone uptake and low or negligible accumulation in non-target
organs. As compared with 99mTc–MDP, 99mTc–HYNIC–AMDP had a higher bone uptake and the ratios of bone/blood and bone/muscle at early time after injection, suggesting
that it could be potentially useful for bone imaging at an earlier time after injection according to further investigations
of the biological behavior of this complex.
Authors:Zhuang Guisun, Wang Yinson, Tan Mingguang, Zhi Min and Pan Weiqing
Ten macro and trace elements were determined in the hair of GuiZhou and XinHuang mercury mine workers and children living near the mine by INAA and AFS. Comparative studies demonstrated that concentrations of certain elements were greater than those corresponding to the nonexposed population. The hair mercury contents of normal adults and children were 1.1 and 1.37 g g–1, respectively. Workers and children living in the polluted area show a mercury level range of 3.52–317 and 1.50–34.7 g g–1, respectively.
Authors:Hong-Xiang Zhao, Bao-Huai Wang and You-Min Zhang
The thermal curves and the enthalpy changes of the interaction between some oral sustained release preparations (Contac, Fenbid
and Benza sustained release capsules) and physiological saline have been measured at 298.15 K with a MS-80 standard Calvet
microcalorimeter. The curves that recorded the changes of heat effect with time have clearly shown the sustained release action
and process of the above preparations. A method for examining the sustained release action of sustained release preparations
can be developed from the above experiments. The principle of application and the experimental procedure of this method have
been expounded, and some results of the above experiments have also been discussed.
Authors:Liqin Liu, Min Zhang, Guangrong Zhong and Xuebin Wang
A conjugate of 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) with the amino analogue of metronidazole (MN) was synthesized
through a multiple-step reaction. HYNIC-MN could be labeled easily and efficiently with 99mTc using N-(2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)glycine (tricine) and ethylenediamine -N,N′-diacetic acid (EDDA) as coligands to form the 99mTc–HYNIC–MN complex in high yield (>95%). Its partition coefficient indicated that it was a good hydrophilic complex. The
tumor cell experiment showed that the 99mTc–HYNIC–MN complex had a certain hypoxic selectivity. The biodistribution studies of 99mTc–HYNIC–MN in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor showed a favorable tissue distribution profile with high tumor uptake, and
low or negligible accumulation in non-target organs, suggesting 99mTc–HYNIC–MN would be a novel potential tumor hypoxia imaging agent.