Twenty four male autopsies were obtained from Shanghai, China. The samples of liver, lung, kidney cortex, brain and scalp hair were collected from the autopsies. The elements As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Se and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The present study shows the distribution of the elements in different tissues and provides the element level for normal persons in the local area. In general, the results are comparable with those of other countries.
Ten macro and trace elements were determined in the hair of GuiZhou and XinHuang mercury mine workers and children living near the mine by INAA and AFS. Comparative studies demonstrated that concentrations of certain elements were greater than those corresponding to the nonexposed population. The hair mercury contents of normal adults and children were 1.1 and 1.37 g g–1, respectively. Workers and children living in the polluted area show a mercury level range of 3.52–317 and 1.50–34.7 g g–1, respectively.
24 male autopsy cases aged 35–60 years have been collected from Shanghai China to study the relationships between human hair and internal tissues. Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analyzed. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) based on a simple group extraction scheme was used for measuring the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn. Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate Zn(DDC)2 and methly isobutyl ketone-iodide have been chosen as reagent. Trace element of Se was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A SLOWPOKE reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 8·1011 n·cm–2·s–1 and a swimming pool type reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 1·1013 n·cm–2·s–1 were used for short and long irradiation of samples, respectively. The reliability of methods has been checked by analyzing biological standard reference materials Horse Kidney (IAEA H8), Tomato Leaves (NBS 1573) and Human Hair (NIES-5). The analytical results show that toxic elements As, Cd and Hg exist in a larger individual variability than the essential elements of Cu, Se and Zn for each tissue. A linear regression analysis related to the six elements of primary interest for the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) has been done by a computer program for each pair of hair-tissue. A positive correlation is found between concentration of As in hair and kidney-cortex, the correlation coefficient r is 0.751 (p<0.01). Positive correlations between concentration of Se in hair and liver, kidney-cortex and lung are also observed in this study. It shows that the elements As and Se in hair may be useful indicators for assessing certain internal tissues of normal persons. A comparison of Cd concentration in lung shows a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. A significant correlation between element Cd and Zn in kidney-cortex is also presented in this paper.
Samples of nickel, varying by four orders of magnitude in their purity, were studied by thermomagnetometry (TM), to determine
if the extrapolated end point (TC) changes.TC is virtually identical for the 99.99 and 99.999% samples. Samples of less purity did show changes.
Simultaneous DTA/TM can accurately defineTC by comparing with the melting points of pure metals determined simultaneously. The melting points of lead and zinc bracket
theTC for nickel. They were added to the sample pan prior to TM of nickel. Experiments were performed at heating rates in the range
from 1 to 20 deg·min−1. It serves as a pilot study for the ICTAC Committee for Standardization to more accurately define the recommended values
Elemental profiles of brain tumor tissues from 15 patients of astrocytomas (grade I–III) and normal human brain tissues of 23 male age matched autopsies as controls have been studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The SLOWPOKE reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 8·1011n·cm–2·s–1 and swimming pool type reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 1·1013n·cm–2·s–1 were used for short and long irradiation of samples, respectively. Spectrophotometry was only used for analyzing phosphorus. A total of 18 elements Se, Na, K, Br, Cl, Mn, Mg, S, Ca, Cu, Hg, Cr, Fe, Rb, Zn, Co, Sc and P has been determined for this purpose. The reliability of methods has been checked by analyzing biological standard reference materials horse kidney (IAEA H-8) and bovine liver (NBS SRM 1577a). The analytical results showed that compared with the normal brain tissues, concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Mn, Br and Sc were significantly higher in tumor tissues (P<0.01) and concentrations of Rb, K and P were lower, while no differences for contents of Mg, S, Cr, Hg, Na and Cl were observed. A negative correlation between P and Ca in malignant and normal brain tissues was observed.
In this work, a simple group separation scheme based on extraction for NAA determination of trace of As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn in biological materials is described. For this purpose, zinc-diethyldithiocarbamate, Zn(DDC)2, and methyl isobutyl ketone-iodide have been chosen as reagents. The elements can be extracted successively and quantitatively from strong mineral acids without adjusting pH of the solution, and separated into two groups suitable for gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples of 100–200 mg dry weight were double-sealed into polyethylene bags and irradiated in a swimming pool reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 1013n·cm–2·s–1 for 44 hours. After a cooling period of 1–3 days, the samples were digested with microgram quantities of carrier in concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 150°C for 3.5 hours in a teflon bomb, then extracted as described above. The reliability of the analytical method was checked using reference materials Horse Kidney IAEA H-8, Human Hair NIES-5 and Tomato Leaves NBS-1573. Most of the results obtained for reference materials agreed with the certified values12. Chinese autopsy samples of hair and liver were presented.
Laser-induced optical fiber fluorimetry has been first used to analyze uranium(VI) concentration in the kinetic studies on the extraction of uranium(VI) between 0.5 mol/l H3PO4 solution and HDEHP-cyclohexane system with a Lewis cell. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and concentrations of uranium(VI) and HDEHP on the rate of extraction were examined. These data show that the extraction rate of uranium(VI) in this system is controlled by the chemical reaction at the interface. The rate equations and the rate constants of forward and reverse extraction are obtained. The mechanism of the extraction is discussed.
In order to determine whether local anesthetics directly affect the propagation and strength of myometrial contractions, we compared the effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine and tetracaine on the contractions of myometrium isolated from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Full-thickness myometrial strips were obtained from 18- to 21-day pregnant and non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and incubated in an organ bath. When spontaneous contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the four local anesthetics ranging from 0.01 to 300 μmol/L and the amplitude and frequency of contraction were recorded. All four compounds caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the contractility of pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle. In pregnant myometrium, the concentration that caused 50% inhibition (IC50) was 100 μmol/L for bupivacaine, 157 μmol/L for ropivacaine, > 1000 μmol/L for lidocaine, and 26.3 μmol/L for tetracaine. In non-pregnant myometrium, the IC50 was 26.9 μmol/L for bupivacaine, 40 μmol/L for ropivacaine, 384 μmol/L for lidocaine, and 7.4 μmol/L for tetracaine. These results suggested that local anesthetics do inhibit myometrial contractions in pregnant and non-pregnant rats in a concentration-dependent manner.
In order to evaluate the evolution of contamination we collected river water and sediment samples in the every spring season since 1998. The elemental analysis of water and sediment samples was performed by PIXE using the 3×2 MeV NEC Tandem accelerator at the Taipei Institute of Physics. The characterization of - and -radioactive levels for water and sediment samples was performed by a BH1216, low background radioactivity instrument at the Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research. The PIXE results showed that the elemental contents of Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Pb in river water gradually decreased with the rising tide. At high tide, their concentrations were minimum and then increased toward the ebb tide. The analysis also demonstrated that the radioactivity of water samples had been gradually decreasing year by year. It was found that the decreasing rate of -radioactivity was a little quicker than that of -radioactivity. Further aspects of environmental data evaluation and assessment are also discussed.
The mechanism of solvent extraction of uranium(VI) from highly concentrated chloride solution with a quaternary ammonium salt,
benzyloctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl), dissolved in chloroform was studied. The compositions of the extracted species were R4N.UO2Cl3 and (R4N)2.UO2Cl4. The extraction process is exothermic (ΔH° = -8.42±0.54 KJ/mol). Kex1 and Kex2 are calculated to be (3.62±0.55).10-2 and (1.06±0.17).103, respectively. In the extraction process, a W/O uranium(VI) rich emulsion solution has been formed between the organic and
aqueous phases, its volume increased with the increase of BODMAC in the system. The influences of temperature, NaCl, MgCl2 and MgSO4 concentrations on the extraction equilibrium were also studied.