This paper presents a methodology for measuring the improvements in efficiency and adjustments in the scale of R&D (Research
& Development) activities. For this purpose, this study decomposes academic productivity growth into components attributable
to (1) world academic frontier change, (2) R&D efficiency change, (3) human capital accumulation, and (4) capital accumulation.
The world academic frontier at each point in time is constructed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). This study calculates
each of the above four components of academic productivity for 27 countries over 1990–2003, and finds that the components
which contribute to academic productivity growth vary with the different countries’ characteristics and development stages.
Human capital has more weight in terms of the quantity of academic research, and capital accumulation plays a more important
role in the citation impact of academic research.
With two active O–O peroxide groups, 1,1-bis(tert-butylperoxy)cyclohexane (BTBPC) has a certain degree of thermal instability. It is usually used as an initiator in chemical processes, and therefore reckless operation may result in serious thermal accidents. This study focused on the runaway reactions of BTBPC alone and mixed with various concentrations of nitric acid (1, 2, 4, and 8 N). The essential thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (To), activation energy (Ea), frequency factor (A), time to maximum rate under adiabatic condition (TMRad) and time to conversion limit (TCL), were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry at the heating rate of 4 °C min−1, and a kinetics-based curve fitting method was used to assess the thermokinetic parameters. All the results indicated that BTBPC mixed with one more than 4 N nitric acid dramatically increased the degree of thermal hazard in the exothermic peak and became more dangerous. However, it was relatively safe for BTBPC mixed with less than 1 N nitric acid under 34.5 °C.