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  • Author or Editor: Ming Ai x
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Authors: Ai-Yih Wang, Chun-Liang Kuo, Jiunn-Liang Lin, Chao-Ming Fu and Yuh-Feng Wang

Abstract  

This study examined the applications of novel non-polymer magnetic ferrite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4 ). The radiochemistry, chemistry, and biodistribution of Fe3O4 NPs labeled with 9mTcO4 were analyzed. This paper employed instant thin layer chromatography and magnetic adsorption to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability of 99mTc-Fe3O4 at various reaction conditions. A scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, laser particle size analyzer, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the Fe3O4 and 99Tc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The biodistribution and excretion of 99mTc-Fe3O4 were also investigated. Radiochemical analyses showed that the labeling efficiency was over 92% after 1 min in the presence of a reducing agent. Hydroxyl and amine groups covered the surface of the Fe3O4 particles. Therefore, 99Tc (VII) reduced to lower oxidation states and might bind to Fe3O4 NPs. The sizes of the 99Tc-Fe3O4 NPs were about 600 nm without ultrasound vibrations, and the particle sizes were reduced to 250 nm under ultrasound vibration conditions. Nonetheless, Fe3O4 NPs and 99Tc-Fe3O4 NPs exhibited superparamagnetic properties, and the saturation magnetization values were about 55 and 47 emu/g, respectively. The biodistribution showed that a portion of the 99mTc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles might embolize in a pulmonary capillary initially; the embolism radioactivity was cleared from the lungs and was then taken up by the liver. 99mTc-Fe3O4 metabolized very slowly only 1–2% of the injected dose (ID) was excreted in urine and about 2.37% ID/g was retained in the liver 4 h after injection. Radiopharmaceutically, 99mTc-Fe3O4 NPs displayed long-term retention, and only 99mTc-Fe3O4 NPs that dissociated to free pertechnetate could be excreted in urine. This research evaluated the feasibility of non-polymer magnetic ferrite NPs labeled with technetium as potential radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine.

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Abstract  

The recovery of uranium(VI) from chloride solution using a liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) technique was studied. The emulsion is constituted by the quaternary salt of benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl) as a carrier, kerosene as organic diluent, Span 80 as emulsifying agent and 0.5 mol/l Na2CO3 as stripping phase. The important variables affecting the LEM permeation process such as the concentrations of extractant, internal strip phase, types of organic diluent, and the presence of magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate were investigated. It was found that, at a given condition, the maximum extraction rate of uranium(VI) reached 80%. The emulsion was stable at low pH in the presence of certain amounts of electrolytes such as NaCl and MgCl2.

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Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction (IA) is common among young students. This study aimed to examine the influence and mechanisms of IA and susceptible personality traits on the impact of suicidal ideation in adolescent students in China.

Methods

This cross-sectional study (09/2012–09/2015) used stratified cluster sampling with “school type” for stratification; 136,266 students from 63 schools completed the questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of IA (Young's Internet Addiction Test) and susceptible personality (Barratt impulsiveness scale, Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire; and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R Short Scale) on suicidal ideation (Scale of Suicidal Ideation).

Results

Suicidal ideation was observed in 20,218 (14.77%) of the students, and IA was detected in 28,836 (21.16%) subjects. Compared with those without IA, students with IA had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation (P < 0.0001). No planning impulsiveness had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation in the impulsive personality trait, while in the aggressive personality trait, hostility and self-aggression had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation (all P < 0.0001). High psychoticism and neuroticism were impact factors for suicidal ideation, but extroversion was a protective factor (all P < 0.0001).

Discussion

These results highlight the importance of assessing personality traits and reducing IA as a possible means of lessening suicidal ideation. Susceptible personality (such as high psychoticism, high neuroticism, and low extroversion) play a prominent role in influencing the probability of having suicidal behavior among those recently exposed to IA.

Conclusions

IA and susceptible personality traits were significantly correlated with suicidal and self-harm ideation among adolescent students.

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