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Abstract  

Pooling lauroyl peroxide (LPO) with nitric acid, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to assess the thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), frequency factor (A), and the other safety parameters. When LPO was contaminated with nitric acid (HNO3), we found the exploder 1-nitrododecane. Obvious products were sensitive and hazardous chemicals. Concentration reaching 1–12 N HNO3 emitted a large amount of heat. This study combined with curve-fitting method to elucidate its unsafe characteristics and thermally sensitive structure to help prevent runaway reactions, fires and explosions in the process environment. According to the findings and the concept of inherently safer design, LPO runaway reactions could be adequately prevented in the relevant plants.

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Abstract  

Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is a typical organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to determine the fundamental thermokinetic parameters that involved exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and other safety parameters for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. Frequency factor (A) and activation energy (Ea) were calculated by Kissinger model, Ozawa equation, and thermal safety software (TSS) series via DSC experimental data. Liquid thermal explosion (LTE) by TSS was employed to simulate the thermal explosion development for various types of storage tank. In view of loss prevention, calorimetric application and model analysis to integrate thermal hazard development were necessary and useful for inherently safer design.

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Abstract

A novel method was established for analysing trace four acidic phytohormones, namely, indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indolebutyric acid, abscisic acid, and 1-naphthylacetic acid, using magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (MOMC). MOMC was facilely synthesised via self-assembly strategy with a direct carbonisation process. The properties of MOMC were characterised using various instruments. MOMC exhibited excellent adsorption capacity towards the analytes. Various critical parameters which may influence the enrichment efficiency were evaluated, including amount of MOMC, extraction conditions, and desorption conditions. An efficient method based on MOMC magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) was developed to analyse the trace four acidic phytohormones, with good correlation coefficients (R 2 = 0.9965–0.9998) and low limits of detection (0.13–9.7 ng L−1, S/N = 3). Trace acidic phytohormones in Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus marmoreus samples were determined with satisfactory recoveries (91.8–108%) and reproducibility (2.6–6.3%). The features indicated that MOMC provides an efficient platform for mushroom sampling; the developed method is convenient, promising, and sensitive for the detection of trace phytohormones in complicated mushroom samples.

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Thermal dissociation reactions and mechanism of complexes of rare earth(iii) nitrates with the crown ether benzo-15-crown-5 were investigated by means of TG-DTG, DSC, DTA and IR technique. The results have shown that the dissociation processes of the complexes consist of several steps, one of which is a fast decomposition reaction. The fast decomposition peak temperatures (DSC) of all the complexes of the lanthanides (except Pm and Tm) decrease regularly with increasing atomic number. Moreover, values of the enthalpy change of desolvation, fast and the fourth step of decomposition and the apparent activation energies of fast and the fourth step of decomposition were obtained.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Chang-Liang Yan
,
Qi-En Yang
,
Guang-Bin Zhou
,
Yun-Peng Hou
,
Xue-Ming Zhao
,
Zhi-Qiang Fan
,
Man-Qing Liu
,
Lin Liu
, and
Shi-En Zhu

The present study was designed to investigate the cryotolerance of in vitro fertilised (IVF) mouse embryos at various preimplantation developmental stages. IVF mouse embryos were vitrified by the open-pulled straw (OPS) method. After warming, embryos were morphologically evaluated and assessed by their development to blastocysts, hatched blastocysts or term. The results showed that a high proportion (93.3–100.0%) of vitrified embryos at all developmental stages were morphologically normal after recovery. The developmental rate of vitrified 1-cell embryos to blastocyst (40.0%) or hatched blastocyst (32.7%) or term (9.3%) was significantly lower than that from other stages (P < 0.05). Vitrified embryos from 2-cell to early blastocyst stage showed similar blastocyst (71.8–89.5%) and hatched blastocyst rates (61.1–69.6%) and could develop to term without a significant loss of survival compared with those of fresh embryos (P > 0.05). Vitrified 2-cell embryos showed the highest survival rate in vivo (50.6%, 88/174), compared with that from other stages (9.3–30.5%, P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that the OPS method is suitable for the cryopreservation of IVF mouse embryos from 2-cell stage to early blastocyst stage without a significant loss of survival. Embryos at the 2-cell stage had the best tolerance for cryopreservation in the present study.

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